Advertisement

Structure and Functional Heterogeneity of Fucoxanthin-Chlorophyll Proteins in Diatoms

  • Kathi Gundermann
  • Claudia BüchelEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration book series (AIPH, volume 39)

Summary

Fucoxanthin-chlorophyll proteins (FCPs) of diatoms are divided into three groups, the main light harvesting antennas Lhcf, the photosystem I-specific Lhcr, and Lhcx involved in photoprotection. All are closely related to higher plant light harvesting complexes (LHCs) when comparing sequences, albeit smaller and more hydrophobic. However, pigmentation differs from higher plant LHCs with around eight chlorophyll a, two chlorophyll c and six fucoxanthin per monomer. Fucoxanthin, with a carbonyl moiety conjugated to the polyene backbone, undergoes extreme bathochromic shifts upon protein binding, dividing the different fucoxanthins into more red, green and blue absorbing ones. Excitation energy transfer is extremely efficient, either directly from chlorophyll c to chlorophyll a or from fucoxanthin to chlorophyll a involving the S1/ICT state of fucoxanthin. Most Lhcf assemble into trimers, whereby only in centric diatoms Lhcx was found in trimers as well, and specific oligomeric FCP complexes are present. Whereas the arrangement of FCPs around the photosystems is largely unknown, spectroscopic measurements together with homology considerations allow for a first rough model of the pigment arrangement in trimeric and oligomeric FCP complexes. Blue fucoxanthin is bound analogously to lutein in LHCII, surrounded by the same four chlorophyll a, since binding sites are conserved. Additionally, chlorophyll a can be found in a604, a614, b605 and a611, although binding of the latter has to be different due to the lack of long wavelength absorption in FCPs. Chlorophyll c is most probably bound in b609 and a613. The red fucoxanthin cluster around helix 2, which has less sequence homology to LHCII. The green fucoxanthins are most probably located around the violaxanthin and b601 binding sites of LHCII, whereby the former is probably a mixed site for fucoxanthins and diadinoxanthin/diatoxanthin.

Keywords

Excitation Energy Transfer Centric Diatom Thalassiosira Pseudonana Trimeric Complex Xanthophyll Cycle Pigment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations:

Chl

– Chlorophyll;

Dd

– Diadinoxanthin;

Dt

– Diatoxanthin;

FCP

– Fucoxanthin-chlorophyll protein;

Fx

– Fucoxanthin;

LHC

– Light-harvesting complex;

NPQ

– Non-photochemical quenching;

PS

– Photosystem

Notes

Acknowledgments

CB would like to express her extreme thankfulness to her present and former group members, colleagues and collaborators, without whom the vast increase in our knowledge about FCP structure and function during the last years would not have been possible. CB and KG gratefully acknowledge continuous support by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (Bu812: grants 4–8) and the European Union (MRTN-CT-2003-505069 “Intro2”; MC-ITN-2009-238017 “Harvest”).

References

  1. Alberte RS, Friedman AL, Gustafson DL, Rudnick MS, Lyman H (1981) Light-harvesting systems of brown algae and diatoms. Isolation and characterization of chlorophyll a/c and chlorophyll a/fucoxanthin pigment-protein complexes. Biochim Biophys Acta 635:304–316PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alexandre MTA, Gundermann K, Pascal AA, Grondelle R, Büchel C, Robert B (2014) Probing the carotenoid content of intact Cyclotella cells by resonance Raman spectroscopy. Photosynth Res 119(3):273–281Google Scholar
  3. Archibald JM, Keeling PJ (2002) Recycled plastids: a ‘green movement’ in eukaryotic evolution. Trends Genet 18:577–584PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Armbrust EV, Berges JA, Bowler C, Green BR, Martinez D, Putnam NH et al (2004) The genome of the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana: ecology, evolution, and metabolism. Science 306:79–86PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bailleul B, Rogato A, De Martino A, Coesel S, Cardol P, Bowler C et al (2010) An atypical member of the light-harvesting complex stress-related protein family modulates diatom responses to light. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:18214–18219PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Becker F, Rhiel E (2006) Immuno-electron microscopic quantification of the fucoxanthin chlorophyll a/c binding polypeptides Fcp2, Fcp4, and Fcp6 of Cyclotella cryptica grown under low- and high-light intensities. Int Microbiol 9:29–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Beer A, Gundermann K, Beckmann J, Büchel C (2006) Subunit composition and pigmentation of fucoxanthin-chlorophyll proteins in diatoms: evidence for a subunit involved in diadinoxanthin and diatoxanthin binding. Biochemistry 45:13046–13053PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Beer A, Juhas M, Büchel C (2011) Influence of different light intensities and different iron nutrition on the photosynthetic apparatus in the diatom Cyclotella meneghiniana (Bacillariophyceae). J Phycol 47:1266–1273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Berkaloff C, Caron L, Rousseau B (1990) Subunit organization of PS I particles from brown algae and diatoms: polypeptide and pigment analysis. Photosynth Res 23:181–193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bhaya D, Grossman AR (1993) Characterization of gene clusters encoding the fucoxanthin chlorophyll proteins of the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Nucleic Acids Res 21:4458–4466PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Boekema EJ, Hankamer B, Bald D, Kruip J, Boonstra AF, Barber J, Rögner M (1995) Supramolecular structure of photosystem II complex from green plants and cyanobacteria. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92:175–179PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bowler C, Allen AE, Badger JH, Grimwood J, Jabbari K, Kuo A et al (2008) The Phaeodactylum genome reveals the evolutionary history of diatom genomes. Nature 456:239–244PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brakemann T, Schlörmann W, Marquardt J, Nolte M, Rhiel E (2006) Association of fucoxanthin chlorophyll a/c-binding polypeptides with photosystems and phosphorylation in the centric diatom Cyclotella cryptica. Protist 157:463–475PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brown JS (1988) Photosynthetic pigment organization in diatoms (Bacillariophyceae). J Phycol 24:96–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Büchel C (2003) Fucoxanthin-chlorophyll proteins in diatoms: 18 and 19 kDa subunits assemble into different oligomeric states. Biochemistry 42:13027–13034PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Caron L, Brown JS (1987) Chlorophyll-carotenoid protein complexes from the diatom, Phaeodactylum tricornutum: spectrophotometric, pigment and polypeptide analyses. Plant Cell Physiol 28:775–785Google Scholar
  17. Damjanović A, Ritz T, Schulten K (2000) Excitation transfer in the peridinin-chlorophyll-protein of Amphidinium carterae. Biophys J 79:1695–1705PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dekker JP, Boekema EJ (2005) Supramolecular organization of thylakoid membrane proteins in green plants. Biochim Biophys Acta 1706:12–39PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Durnford DG, Aebersold R, Green BR (1996) The fucoxanthin-chlorophyll proteins from a chromophyte alga are part of a large multigene family: structural and evolutionary relationships to other light-harvesting antennae. Mol Gen Genet 253:377–386PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Eppard M, Rhiel E (1998) The genes encoding light-harvesting subunits of Cyclotella cryptica (Bacillariophyceae) constitute a complex and heterogeneous family. Mol Gen Genet 260:335–345PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Eppard M, Rhiel E (2000) Investigation on gene copy number, introns and chromosomal arrangements of genes encoding the fucoxanthin chlorophyll a/c-binding proteins of the centric diatom Cyclotella cryptica. Protist 151:27–39PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Eppard M, Krumbein WE, von Haesler A, Rhiel E (2000) Characterization of fcp4 and fcp12, two additional genes encoding light harvesting proteins of Cyclotella cryptica (Bacillariophyceae) and phylogenetic analysis of this complex gene family. Plant Biol 2:283–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Falkowski PG, Barber RT, Smetacek V (1998) Biogeochemical controls and feedbacks on ocean primary production. Science 281:200–206PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fawley MW (1989) A new form of chlorophyll c involved in light-harvesting. Plant Physiol 91:727–732PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fawley MW, Grossman AR (1986) Polypeptides of a light-harvesting complex of the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum are synthesized in the cytoplasm of the cell as precursors. Plant Physiol 81:149–155PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Frank HA, Bautista JA, Josue J, Pendon Z, Hiller RG, Sharples FP et al (2000) Effect of the solvent environment on the spectroscopic properties and dynamics of the lowest excited states of carotenoids. J Phys Chem B 104:4569–4577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Friedman AL, Alberte RS (1984) A diatom light-harvesting pigment-protein complex. Plant Physiol 76:483–489PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Friedman AL, Alberte RS (1986) Biogenesis and light regulation of the major light harvesting chlorophyll-protein of diatoms. Plant Physiol 80:43–51PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Georgakopoulou S, van der Zwan G, Bassi R, van Grondelle R, van Amerongen H, Croce R (2007) Understanding the changes in the circular dichroism of light harvesting complex II upon varying its pigment composition and organization. Biochemistry 46:4745–4754PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gibbs SP (1970) The comparative ultrastructure of the algal chloroplast. Ann NY Acad Sci 175:454–473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gildenhoff N, Amarie S, Gundermann K, Beer A, Büchel C, Wachtveitl J (2010a) Oligomerization and pigmentation dependent excitation energy transfer in fucoxanthin-chlorophyll proteins. Biochim Biophys Acta 1797:543–549PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gildenhoff N, Herz J, Gundermann K, Büchel C, Wachtveitl J (2010b) The excitation energy transfer in the trimeric fucoxanthin-chlorophyll protein from Cyclotella meneghiniana analyzed by polarized transient absorption spectroscopy. Chem Phys 373:104–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Green BR (2011) After the primary endosymbiosis: an update on the chromalveolate hypothesis and the origins of algae with Chl c. Photosynth Res 107:103–115PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Green BR, Kühlbrandt W (1995) Sequence conservation of light-harvesting and stress-response proteins in relation to the three-dimensional molecular structure of LHCII. Photosynth Res 44:139–148PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Green BR, Pichersky E (1994) Hypothesis for the evolution of three-helix Chl a/b and Chl a/c light-harvesting antenna proteins from two-helix and four-helix ancestors. Photosynth Res 39:149–162PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Grouneva I, Rokka A, Aro E (2011) The thylakoid membrane proteome of two marine diatoms outlines both diatom-specific and species-specific features of the photosynthetic machinery. J Proteome Res: 111109140228006Google Scholar
  37. Guglielmi G, Lavaud J, Rousseau B, Etienne A, Houmard J, Ruban AV (2005) The light-harvesting antenna of the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Evidence for a diadinoxanthin-binding subcomplex. FEBS J 272:4339–4348PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gugliemelli A (1984) Isolation and characterization of pigment-protein particles from the light-harvesting complex of Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Biochim Biophys Acta 766:45–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gundermann K, Büchel C (2008) The fluorescence yield of the trimeric fucoxanthin-chlorophyll-protein FCPa in the diatom Cyclotella meneghiniana is dependent on the amount of bound diatoxanthin. Photosynth Res 95:229–235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gundermann K, Büchel C (2012) Factors determining the fluorescence yield of fucoxanthin-chlorophyll complexes (FCP) involved in non-photochemical quenching in diatoms. Biochim Biophys Acta 1817:1044–1052PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gundermann K, Haufe A, Schmidt M, Weisheit W, Mittag M, Büchel C (2013) Identification of several sub-populations in the pool of light harvesting proteins in the pennate diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Biochim Biophys Acta 1827:303–310PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ikeda Y, Komura M, Wanatabe M, Minami C, Koike H, Itoh S et al (2008) Photosystem I complexes associated with fucoxanthin-chlorophyll-binding proteins from a marine centric diatom, Chaetoceros gracilis. Biochim Biophys Acta 1777:351–361PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Janssen M, Bathke L, Marquardt J, Krumbein WE, Rhiel E (2001) Changes in the photosynthetic apparatus of diatoms in response to low and high light intensities. Int Microbiol 4:27–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Jeffrey SW, Humphrey GF (1975) New spectrometric equations for determining chlorophyll a, b, c 1 and c 2 in higher plants, algae and natural phytoplankton. Biochem Physiol Pflanz 167:191–194Google Scholar
  45. Joshi-Deo J, Schmidt M, Gruber A, Weisheit W, Mittag M, Kroth PG, Büchel C (2010) Characterization of a trimeric light-harvesting complex in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum built of FcpA and FcpE proteins. J Exp Bot 61:3079–3087PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Juhas M, Büchel C (2012) Properties of photosystem I antenna protein complexes of the diatom Cyclotella meneghiniana. J Exp Bot 63:3673–3681Google Scholar
  47. Katoh T, Nagashima U, Mimuro M (1991) Fluorescence properties of the allenic carotenoid fucoxanthin: implication for energy transfer in photosynthetic pigment systems. Photosynth Res 27:221–226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Koyama Y, Kuki M, Andersson PO, Gillbro T (1996) Singlet excited states and the light-harvesting function of carotenoids in bacterial photosynthesis. Photochem Photobiol 63:243–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kraay GW, Zapata M, Veldhuis MJW (1992) Separation of chlorophylls c 1 c 2, and c 3 of marine phytoplankton by reversed-phase-C18-high-performance liquid chromatography. J Phycol 28:708–712CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Lavaud J, Rousseau B, van Gorkom HJ, Etienne A (2002) Influence of the diadinoxanthin pool size on photoprotection in the marine planktonic diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Plant Physiol 129:1398–1406PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lavaud J, Rousseau B, Etienne A (2003) Enrichment of the light-harvesting complex in diadinoxanthin and implications for the nonphotochemical fluorescence quenching in diatoms. Biochemistry 42:5802–5808PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lepetit B, Volke D, Szabó M, Hoffmann R, Garab G, Wilhelm C, Goss R (2007) Spectroscopic and molecular characterization of the oligomeric antenna of the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Biochemistry 46:9813–9822PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lepetit B, Volke D, Gilbert M, Wilhelm C, Goss R (2010) Evidence for the existence of one antenna-associated lipid-dissolved and two protein-bound pools of diadinoxanthin cycle pigments in diatoms. Plant Physiol 154:1905–1920PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lepetit B, Goss R, Jakob T, Wilhelm C (2012) Molecular dynamics of the diatom thylakoid membrane under different light conditions. Photosynth Res 111:245–257PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Liu Z, Yan H, Wang K, Kuang T, Zhang J, Gui L et al (2004) Crystal structure of spinach major light-harvesting complex at 2.72 Å resolution. Nature 428:287–292PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lohr M, Wilhelm C (1999) Algae displaying the diadinoxanthin cycle also possess the violaxanthin cycle. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:8784–8789PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Medlin LK, Kooistra WH, Gersonde R, Wellbrock U (1996) Evolution of the diatoms (Bacillariophyta). II. Nuclear-encoded small-subunit rRNA sequence comparisons confirm a paraphyletic origin for the centric diatoms. Mol Biol Evol 13:67–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Miloslavina Y, Grouneva I, Lambrev PH, Lepetit B, Goss R, Wilhelm C, Holzwarth AR (2009) Ultrafast fluorescence study on the location and mechanism of non-photochemical quenching in diatoms. Biochim Biophys Acta 1787:1189–1197PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Moustafa A, Beszteri B, Maier UG, Bowler C, Valentin K, Bhattacharya D (2009) Genomic footprints of a cryptic plastid endosymbiosis in diatoms. Science 324:1724–1726PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Nagao R, Ishii A, Tada O, Suzuki T, Dohmae N, Okumura A et al (2007) Isolation and characterization of oxygen-evolving thylakoid membranes and photosystem II particles from a marine diatom Chaetoceros gracilis. Biochim Biophys Acta 1767:1353–1362PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Nagao R, Tomo T, Noguchi E, Nakajima S, Suzuki T, Okumura A et al (2010) Purification and characterization of a stable oxygen-evolving photosystem II complex from a marine centric diatom, Chaetoceros gracilis. Biochim Biophys Acta 1797:160–166PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Novoderezhkin VI, Palacios MA, van Amerongen H, van Grondelle R (2004) Energy-transfer dynamics in the LHCII complex of higher plants: modified Redfield approach. J Phys Chem B 108:10363–10375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Nymark M, Valle KC, Brembu T, Hancke K, Winge PW, Andresen K et al (2009) An integrated analysis of molecular acclimation to high light in the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. PLoS ONE 4:e7743PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Oeltjen A, Krumbein WE, Rhiel E (2002) Investigations on transcript sizes, steady state mRNA concentrations and diurnal expression of genes encoding fucoxanthin chlorophyll a/c light harvesting polypeptides in the centric diatom Cyclotella cryptica. Plant Biol 4:250–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Oeltjen A, Marquardt J, Rhiel E (2004) Differential circadian expression of genes fcp2 and fcp6 in Cyclotella cryptica. Int Microbiol 7:127–131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Owens TG (1986) Light-harvesting function in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum – II. Distribution of excitation energy between the photosystems. Plant Physiol 80:739–746PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Owens TG (1988) Light-harvesting antenna systems in the chlorophyll a/c-containing algae. In: Stevens SE, Bryant DA (eds) Light-energy transduction in photosynthesis: higher plants and bacterial models. American Society of Plant Physiologists, Rockville, MD, pp 122–136Google Scholar
  68. Owens TG, Wold ER (1986) Light-harvesting function in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum – I. Isolation and characterization of pigment-protein complexes. Plant Physiol 80:732–738PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Pan X, Li M, Wan T, Wang L, Jia C, Hou Z et al (2011) Structural insights into energy regulation of light-harvesting complex CP29 from spinach. Nat Struct Mol Biol 18:309–315PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Papagiannakis E, van Stokkum IHM, Fey H, Büchel C (2005) Spectroscopic characterization of the excitation energy transfer in the fucoxanthin-chlorophyll protein of diatoms. Photosynth Res 86:241–250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Peers G, Truong TB, Ostendorf E, Busch A, Elrad D, Grossman AR et al (2009) An ancient light-harvesting protein is critical for the regulation of algal photosynthesis. Nature 462:518–521PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Premvardhan L, Sandberg D, Fey H, Birge R, Büchel C, van Grondelle R (2008) The charge-transfer properties of the S2 state of fucoxanthin in solution and in fucoxanthin chlorophyll-a/c2 protein (FCP) based on Stark spectroscopy and molecular orbital theory. J Phys Chem B 112:11838–11853PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Premvardhan L, Bordes L, Beer A, Büchel C, Robert B (2009) Carotenoid structures and environments in trimeric and oligomeric fucoxanthin chlorophyll a/c 2 proteins from resonance Raman spectroscopy. J Phys Chem B 113:12565–12574PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Premvardhan L, Robert B, Beer A, Büchel C (2010) Pigment organization in fucoxanthin chlorophyll a/c 2 proteins (FCP) based on resonance Raman spectroscopy and sequence analysis. Biochim Biophys Acta 1797:1647–1656PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Pyszniak AM, Gibbs SP (1992) Immunocytochemical localization of photosystem I and the fucoxanthin-chlorophyll a/c light-harvesting complex in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Protoplasma 166:208–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Raven JA, Waite AM (2004) The evolution of silicification in diatoms: inescapable sinking and sinking as escape? New Phytol 162:45–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Rhiel E, Marquardt J, Eppard M, Mörschel E, Krumbein WE (1997) The light-harvesting system of the diatom Cyclotella cryptica. Isolation and characterisation of the main light harvesting complex and evidence for the existence of minor pigment proteins. Bot Acta 110:109–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Richard C, Ouellet H, Guertin M (2000) Characterization of the LI818 polypeptide from the green unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Plant Mol Biol 42:303–316PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Ruban AV, Lavaud J, Rousseau B, Guglielmi G, Horton P, Etienne A (2004) The super-excess energy dissipation in diatom algae: comparative analysis with higher plants. Photosynth Res 82:165–175PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Ruban AV, Johnson MP, Duffy CDP (2012) The photoprotective molecular switch in the photosystem II antenna. Biochim Biophys Acta 1817:167–181PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Standfuss J, van Scheltinga ACT, Lamborghini M, Kühlbrandt W (2005) Mechanisms of photoprotection and nonphotochemical quenching in pea light-harvesting complex at 2.5 Å resolution. EMBO J 24:919–928PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Szabò I, Bergantino E, Giacometti GM (2005) Light and oxygenic photosynthesis: energy dissipation as a protection mechanism against photo-oxidation. EMBO Rep 6:629–634PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Szabó M, Lepetit B, Goss R, Wilhelm C, Mustárdy L, Garab G (2008) Structurally flexible macro-organization of the pigment-protein complexes of the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Photosynth Res 95:237–245PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Szabó M, Premvardhan L, Lepetit B, Goss R, Wilhelm C, Garab G (2010) Functional heterogeneity of the fucoxanthins and fucoxanthin-chlorophyll proteins in diatom cells revealed by their electrochromic response and fluorescence and linear dichroism spectra. Chem Phys 373:110–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Veith T, Büchel C (2007) The monomeric photosystem I-complex of the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum binds specific fucoxanthin chlorophyll proteins (FCPs) as light-harvesting complexes. Biochim Biophys Acta 1767:1428–1435PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Veith T, Brauns J, Weisheit W, Mittag M, Büchel C (2009) Identification of a specific fucoxanthin-chlorophyll protein in the light harvesting complex of photosystem I in the diatom Cyclotella meneghiniana. Biochim Biophys Acta 1787:905–912PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Wolfe GR, Cunningham FX, Durnford D, Green BR, Gantt E (1994) Evidence for a common origin of chloroplasts with light-harvesting complexes of different pigmentation. Nature 367:566–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Zhu S, Green BR (2010) Photoprotection in the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana: role of LI818-like proteins in response to high light stress. Biochim Biophys Acta 1797:1449–1457PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Zigmantas D, Hiller RG, Sharples FP, Frank HA, Sundström V, Polívka T (2004) Effect of a conjugated carbonyl group on the photophysical properties of carotenoids. Phys Chem Chem Phys 6:3009–3016CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Molecular BiosciencesGoethe Universität FrankfurtFrankfurtGermany

Personalised recommendations