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Carbon Fixation in Diatoms

  • Yusuke MatsudaEmail author
  • Peter G. Kroth
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration book series (AIPH, volume 39)

Summary

Diatoms are unicellular photoautotrophic algae and very successful primary producers in the oceans. Their high primary productivity is probably sustained by their high adaptability and a uniquely arranged metabolism. Diatom belongs to the Chromista, a large eukaryotic group, which has evolved by multiple endosymbiotic steps. As a result, diatoms possess a plastids with four membranes together with complicated translocation systems to transport proteins and metabolites including inorganic substances into and out of the plastids. In addition to the occurrence of potential plasma-membrane transporters, there are numerous carbonic anhydrases (CAs) within the matrix of the layered plastidic membranes, strongly suggesting large interconversion activity between CO2 and HCO3 within the chloroplast envelope as a part of a CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM). In diatoms also the Calvin cycle and its adjacent metabolism reveal unique characteristics as, for instance, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) activase, the plastidic sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase (SBPase), and the plastidic oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (OPP) are absent. Furthermore, the Calvin cycle metabolism in diatoms is not under the strict redox control by the thioredoxin (Trx) system. Instead, a CO2-supplying system in the pyrenoid shows CA activities which are probably regulated by chloroplastic Trxs. Pyrenoidal CAs are also regulated on the transcriptional level by CO2 concentrations via cAMP as a second messenger, suggesting an intense control system of CO2 acquisition in response to CO2 availability. The photorespiratory carbon oxidation cycle (PCOC) is the major pathway to recycle phosphoglycolate in diatoms although this process might not be involved in recycling of 3-phosphoglycerate but instead produces glycine and serine. In this review we focus on recent experimental data together with supportive genome information of CO2 acquisition and fixation systems primarily in two marine diatoms, Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Thalassiosira pseudonana.

Keywords

Carbonic Anhydrase Dissolve Inorganic Carbon Calvin Cycle Marine Diatom Centric Diatom 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations:

AC

– Adenylyl cyclase;

CA

– Carbonic anhydrase;

CCM

– CO2-concentrating mechanism;

DIC

– Dissolved-inorganic carbon;

FBA

– Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase;

FBPase

– Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase;

Fd

– Ferredoxin;

HGT

– Horizontal gene transfer;

LCI

– Low-CO2-inducible proteins;

NTT

– Nucleotide translocators;

OPP

– Oxidative pentose phosphate pathway;

PCOC

– Photorespiratory carbon oxidation cycle;

PEPCK

– Phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase;

PPDK

– Pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase;

RubisCO

– Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase;

SLC

– Solute carrier;

Trx

– Thioredoxin

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research B (grant no. 24310015 to Y. M.), by Grant-in-Aid for Challenging Exploratory Research (grant no. 24651119 to Y. M.) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), by MEXT-Supported Program for the Strategic Research Foundation at Private Universities (2010–2014), by the Program for Research on Halophilic Organism of the Salt Science Research Foundation (grant no. 06B02 to Y. M.), and by the Steel Industry Foundation for the Advancement of Environmental Protection Technology to Y. M. PGK is grateful for financial support by the German Research Foundation (DFG), grant KR1661/7-1, the German Israeli Foundation (GIF), the University of Konstanz, and is thankful to A. Gruber and J. Hentschel for providing an unpublished electron micrograph.

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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Bioscience, Research Center for Environmental BioscienceKwansei Gakuin UniversitySandaJapan
  2. 2.Fachbereich BiologieUniversität KonstanzKonstanzGermany

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