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The Architecture of Cyanobacteria, Archetypes of Microbial Innovation

  • Claire S. TingEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration book series (AIPH, volume 39)

Summary

With an impressive and unparalleled evolutionary history spanning over two billion years, cyanobacteria have evolved to thrive in a diverse range of habitats and numerically dominate vast regions, such as the open oceans. Impacts of this microbial lineage on our planet have been far-reaching: ancestors of extant cyanobacteria had a pivotal role not only in the establishment of oxygen as a major component of the atmosphere, but in the rise of embryophytic algae and land plants. The evolution of innovative cellular structure and function in response to abiotic and biotic selection pressures has resulted in a striking diversity in cyanobacteria. Given the fact that the relationship between form and function is complex, and that cellular structures are often multifunctional and dynamic, this review uses a comparative approach in understanding how biological functions or strategies impact cellular architecture. Notably, differences existing in cellular architecture among genera, and even between strains of the same genus, often reflect evolutionary innovations that have permitted a group to flourish in a particular environment. This review also addresses how a conserved cellular feature, namely the compartmentalization of key functions, has promoted metabolic flexibility and survival. This compartmentalization involves structures such as the internal membranes, heterocysts and carboxysomes, and has permitted the functioning and integration of diverse, and at times, incompatible, processes in a single cell. With heightened interest in utilizing photosynthetic organisms to address global challenges in food and energy resources, research on this remarkable lineage will undoubtedly continue to inform, as well as inspire.

Keywords

Cyanobacterial Cell Internal Membrane Peptidoglycan Layer Conventional Transmission Electron Microscopy Intracytoplasmic Membrane 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations:

ATP

– Adenosine triphosphate;

Chl

– Chlorophyll

CP43

– Chl-binding protein (apparent molecular mass 43 kDa) associated with PSII;

CP47

– Chl-binding protein (apparent molecular mass 47 kDa) associated with PSII;

LHCII

– Mobile light-harvesting Chl a/b-binding antenna complex;

Mbp

– Million base pairs;

Pcb

– Prochlorophyte Chl a/b-binding antenna protein;

PQ

– Plastoquinone;

PS I

– Photosystem I;

PS II

– Photosystem II;

TEM

– Transmission electron microscopy

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the National Science Foundation Award Numbers MCB-0615680 and MCB-0850900.

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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiologyWilliams CollegeWilliamstownUSA

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