Working Towards Führer: A Chaotic View

  • Ulas CakarEmail author
Part of the Understanding Complex Systems book series (UCS)


Leadership is a concept that has been discussed since the beginning of history. Even though there have been many theories in the field accepting leadership’s role in bringing order, chaotic aspects of leadership are generally neglected. This chapter aims to examine the leadership beyond an orderly interpretation of universe. For this purpose, Third Reich period and leadership during this period will be examined. Ian Kershaw’s “Working Towards Führer” concept provides a unique understanding of leadership concept. It goes beyond the dualist depiction of Third Reich, it does not state Adolf Hitler as an all powerful dictator, or a weak one. Rather, he expresses that due to the conditions in the Third Reich, Adolf Hitler was both of this. This complex situation can be understood deeper when it is examined through the lens of chaos theory. This study contributes to the field by being the first in using chaos theory for examining “Working Towards Führer” concept and its development. Seemingly orderly nature of synchronization process and its vortex will be shown. Adolf Hitler’s storm spot position in the chaotic system and its dynamics are explained. War’s entropic power and its effect on the downfall of the system is crucial in understanding this unique chaotic system. The chaotic pattern of “Working Towards Führer” offers an opportunity to analyze the complexities of the leadership concept.


Third Reich Leadership Chaos theory and leadership Synchronization 


  1. 1.
    Akdeniz, G. (2011). Kara Kefali. İstanbul: Everest Yayınları.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Armaoğlu, F. (1999). 20. Yüzyıl Siyasi Tarihi. İstanbul: İş Bankası Yayınları.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bartov, O. (2001). The Eastern front 1941–1945, German troops, and the barbarisation of warfare. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bass, B. M., & Bass, R. (2008). Bass handbook of leadership. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Beevor, A. (1999). Stalingrad. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bellamy, C. (2007). Absolute war. Essex: Pan Books.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Belfield, E., & Essame, H. (1983). The battle for Normandy. London: Pan Books.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bernadotte, F. (2009). Last days of the Third Reich. Doncaster: Frontline Books.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Black, J. (2003). Dretnot, Tank ve Uçak: Modern Çağda Savaş Sanatı. İstanbul: Kitap Yayınevi.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Black, J. (2010). Age of total war. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Black, J. S., & Porter, L. W. (2000). Management: meeting new challenges. Upper Saddle River: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bullock, A. (1991). A study in Tyranny. UK: Harper Perennial.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bullock, A. (1993). Hitler and Stalin: Parallel lives. UK: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bryman, A. (1992). Charisma & leadership. London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cakar, U. (2011). Inherent chaos in the organizational order: An epistemological approach. International Journal of Business and Management Studies, 3(1), 391–405.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cakar, U., & Alakavuklar, O. N. (2013). Chaotic essence inside the organizational reality. In S. Banerjee (Ed.), Handbook of chaos and complexity theory for management: Nonlinear dynamics (pp. 145–161). IGI Global. Hershey: Business Science Reference.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cesarani, D. (2007). Becoming Eichmann: Rethinking the life, crimes, and trial of a “desk murderer”. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Collingham, L. (2012). The taste of war: World War Two and the battle for food. London: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Conway, J. S. (1997). The Nazi persecution of the churches: 1933–1945. Vancouver: Regent College Publishing.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Corelli, B. (1989). Hitler’s generals. London: Quill.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Davies, N. (1998). European history. UK: Harper Perennial.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Dear, I. C. B., & Foot, M. R. D. (2005). The Oxford companion to World War II. Italy: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Dobry, M. (2006). Hitler, charisma and structure: Reflections on historical methodology. Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions, 7(2), 157–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Durschmied, E. (2011). The hinge factor: How chance and stupidity have changed history. New York: Arcade Publishing.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Eatwell, R. (2006). The concept and theory of charismatic leadership. Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions, 7(2), 141–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Eberle, H., & Uhl, M. (2006). The Hitler book. London: John Murray.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Elstob, P. (1968). Bastogne: The road block. London: Macdonald Publishers.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Eren, E. (2012). Örgütsel Davranış ve Yönetim Psikolojisi. İstanbul: Beta Basım Yayım.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Evans, R. J. (2004). The coming of the Third Reich. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Evans, R. J. (2006). The Third Reich in power. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Evans, R. J. (2010). The Third Reich at war. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Fox, J. P. (1979). Adolf Hitler: Continuing debate. International Affairs, 55(2), 252–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Gleick, J. (1985, November 12). Jupiter’s baffling red spot loses some of its mystery. New York Times.
  34. 34.
  35. 35.
    Goebbles, J. (1984). Goebbels Diaries: 1939–1941. London: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Goleman, D., Boyatzis, R., & McKee, A. (2002). Primal leadership. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Guderian, H. (2002). Panzer leader. New York: Da Capo Press.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hacip, Y. H. (2006). Kutadgu Bilig. İstanbul: Kabalcı Yayınevi.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Haffner, S. (2001). Hitler Üzerine Notlar. İstanbul: Gendaş Kültür.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hanfstaengl, E. P. (1994). Hitler: The missing years. New York: Arcade Publishing.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hart, B. L. (2007). History of Second World War. New York: Konecky and Konecky.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Herf, J. (2008). Post-totalitarian narratives in Germany: Reflections on two dictatorships after 1945 and 1989. Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions, 9(2–3), 161–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    History. (2004). The World at War (30th Anniversary ed.). New York: A&E Video.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Hitler, A. (1971). Mein Kampf. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hobsbawm, E. (1994). The age of extremes. New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Jukes, G. (1968). Stalingrad: The turning point. London: Macdonald Publishers.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Jukes, G. (2002). The Second World War: The Eastern front. Oxford: Osprey Publishing.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Kallis, A. (2006). Nazi propaganda and “coordination”: The haphazard path to totalitarianism. European Review of History, 13(1), 115–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kallis, A. (2009). Nazi propaganda decision-making: The hybrid of ‘modernity’ and ‘neo-feudalism’ in Nazi wartime propaganda. Portuguese Journal of Social Science, 8(1), 61–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Keegan, J. (1989). The Second World War. London: Pimlico.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Kershaw, I. (2000). Hitler: 1889–1936 Hubris. New York: W. & W. Norton Company.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Kershaw, I. (2001). Hitler: 1936–1945 Nemesis. New York: W. & W. Norton Company.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kershaw, I. (2002). Popular opinion & political dissent in the Third Reich, Bavaria 1933–1945. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Kershaw, I. (2003). “Working towards the Führer”: Reflection on the nature of Hitler dictatorship. In I. Kershaw & M. Lewin (Eds.), Stalinism & Nazism Dictatorships in comparison. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kershaw, I., & Lewin, M. (2003). Stalinism and Nazism: Dictatorships in comparison. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Kershaw, I. (2004). Hitler and uniqueness of Nazism. Journal of Contemporary History, 39(2), 239–254.CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kershaw, I. (2008). Hitler, the Germans and the final solution. London: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Kershaw, I. (2011). The end: The defiance and destruction of Hitler’s Germany, 1944–1945. New York: Penguin.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Koçel, T. (2011). İşletme Yöneticiliği. İstanbul: Beta Yayınları.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Langer, W. C. (2002). Hitler’in Psikopatolojisi. İstanbul: Don Kişot Yayınları.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Leasor, J. (1962). Rudolf Hess: The uninvited envoy. London: Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Lepsius, M. R. (2006). The model of charismatic leadership and its applicability to the rule of Adolf Hitler. Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions, 7(2), 175–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Macksey, K. (1968). Panzer division. London: Pan Books.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Macksey, K. (1991). Tank versus tank. New York: Crescent.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Mantran, R. (2007). Osmanlı İmparatorluğu Tarihi 1–2. İstanbul: Alkım Yayınevi.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Manvell, R. (1972). The conspirators: 20th July 1944. London: Ballantine Books.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Mazower, M. (2009). Hitler’s empire: Nazi rule in occupied Europe. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    McElligott, A., Kirk, T., & Kershaw, I. (2003). Working towards the Führer: Essays in honor of Sir Ian Kershaw. Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Meindl, J. R., Ehrlich, S. B., & Dukerich, J. M. (1985). The romance of leadership. Administrative Science Quarterly, 30, 78–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Montefiore, S. S. (2005). Stalin: Court of the red tsar. New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Mühlenfeld, D. (2010). Between state and part: Position and function of the Gau propaganda leader in national socialist leadership. German History, 28(2), 167–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Nolzen, A. (2005). Charismatic legitimation and bureaucratic rule: The NSDAP in the Third Reich 1933–1945. German History, 4(3), 494–518.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Overy, R. (2000). Goering: The iron man. London: Weidenfield & Nicholson.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Read, A. (2005). The devil’s disciples. New York: Norton Books.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Rees, L. (1999). The Nazis: A warning from history. UK: New Press.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Rees, L. (2012). The dark charisma of Adolf Hitler. London: Ebury Press.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Ribard, A. (1983). İnsanlığın Tarihi. İstanbul: Say Yayınları.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Roberts, G. (2012). Stalin’s general: The life of Georgy Zhukov. UK: Random House.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Ruelle, D. (1990). Rastlantı ve Kaos. Ankara: Tübitak Yayınları.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Ryback, T. W. (2010). Hitler’s private library. London: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Salisbury, H. (2003). 900 days: The siege of Leningrad. New York: Da Capo Press.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Schleunes, K. A. (1990). The twisted road to Auschwitz: Nazi policy toward German Jews, 1933–39. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Shirer, W. (1991). The rise and fall of Third Reich. USA: Ballantine Books.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Sim, S. (2011). The Routledge companion to post modernism. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Speer, A. (2009). Inside the Third Reich. USA: Ishi Press.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Strawson, J. (2003). Hitler as military commander. UK: Pen & Sword.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Thames Television. (1974). World at war documentary-episode 21-nemesis. UK: Thames Television.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Thompson, R. W. (1968). D-Day spearhead of invasion. Riverside: MacDonald.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Toland, J. (1991). Adolf Hitler: The definitive biography. Romulus: Agnos.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Toland, J. (1999). Battle: The story of the Bulge. Knoxville: Bison Books.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Trevor-Roper, H. (2000). Hitler’s table talk: 1941–1944. His private conversations. Canada: Enigma Books.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Trevor-Roper, H. (2008). Final entries 1945: The diaries of Joseph Goebbels. Riverside: Pen and Sword.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Weinberg, G. L. (2006). Hitler’s second book. New York: Enigma Book.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Winchester, J. (2003). Tanks and armoured fighting vehicles of WWII. London: Silverdale Books.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Wistrich, R. S. (2002). Who’s who in Nazi Germany. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Zhukov, G. K. (1971). The memoirs of Marshal Zhukov. London: Jonathan Cape.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Ziemke, E. F. (1968). Battle for Berlin: End of the Third Reich. London: Macdonald Publishers.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Business, Department of BusinessDokuz Eylül UniversityBuca, İzmirTurkey

Personalised recommendations