Advertisement

Genetic Diagnosis on Hepatic Metastasis from Colorectal Cancer

  • Suzhan Zhang
Chapter

Abstract

Early diagnosis is one of the bottlenecks to cure the hepatic metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC). About 15–25 % patients are diagnosed with hepatic metastasis when the primary tumor is detected, while 25 % CRC patients will suffer from metachronous hepatic metastasis [1]. Currently, the diagnoses for synchronous hepatic metastasis of colorectal cancer mainly counts on preoperative examination and/or exploratory intraoperation; when necessary, biopsy is performed to determine hepatic metastasis of cancer; the diagnoses for metachronous hepatic metastasis mainly count on regular follow-up reexaminations by means of imaging checks such as ultrasound, CT, MRI, and PET and cancer embryo antigen (CEA). However, genetic diagnosis still remains at the exploratory stage of laboratory, so it is far away from clinical application.

Keywords

Colorectal Cancer Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Migration Inhibitory Factor Hepatic Metastasis Primary Colorectal Cancer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Ballantyne GH, Quin J. Surgical treatment of liver metastasis in patients with colorectal cancer. Cancer. 1993;71:4252–66.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Abir F, Alva S, Longo WE, et al. The postoperative surveillance of patients with colon cancer and rectal cancer. Am J Surg. 2006;192:100–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Yeatman TJ, Bland KI, Copeland 3rd EM, et al. Relationship between colorectal liver metastasis and CEA levels in gallbladder bile. Ann Surg. 1989;210:505–12.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Li Destri G, Lanteri R, Santangelo M, et al. Can biliary carcinoembryonic antigen identify colorectal cancer patients with occult hepatic metastasis? World J Surg. 2006;30:1494–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tuech JJ, Pessaux P, Regenet N, et al. Detection of occult liver metastasis in colorectal cancer by measurement of biliary carcinoembryonic antigen concentration: a prospective study. J Surg Oncol. 2004;88:27–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kanellos I, Zacharakis E, Demetriades H, et al. Value of carcinoembryonic antigen assay in predicting hepatic metastasis, local recurrence, and survival after curative resection of colorectal cancer. Surg Today. 2006;36:879–84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Xu D, Li XF, Zheng S, et al. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR detection for CEA, CK20 and CK19 mRNA in peripheral blood of colorectal cancer patients. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2006;7:445–751.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Iinuma H, Okinaga K, Egami H, et al. Usefulness and clinical significance of quantitative real-time RT-PCR to detect isolated tumor cells in the peripheral blood and tumor drainage blood of patients with colorectal cancer. Int J Oncol. 2006;28:297–306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Miura M, Ichikawa Y, Tanaka K, et al. Real-time PCR (TaqMan PCR) quantification of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) mRNA in the peripheral blood of colorectal cancer patients. Anticancer Res. 2003;23:1271–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kijima M, Togo S, Ichikawa Y, et al. Clinical significance of serum CEA protein and CEA mRNA after resection of colorectal liver metastasis. Anticancer Res. 2005;25:1327–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hu Yue, Li Xufen, Zhang Suzhan. Test on expression of CK 19-mRNA in peripheral blood of lung cancer patient. Pract Cancer Mag. 2004;19:40–2.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ide T, Kitajima Y, Miyoshi A, et al. The hypoxic environment in tumor-stromal cells accelerates pancreatic cancer progression via the activation of paracrine hepatocyte growth factor/c-Met signaling. Ann Surg Oncol. 2007;14:2600–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jagadeeswaran R, Ma PC, Seiwert TY, et al. Functional analysis of c-Met/hepatocyte growth factor pathway in malignant pleural mesothelioma. Cancer Res. 2006;66:352–61.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Di Renzo MF, Olivero M, Giacomini A, et al. Overexpression and amplification of the met/HGF receptor gene during the progression of colorectal cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 1995;1:147–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wei Ye, Xu Jianmin, Lu Xueyi. Application of c-met proto-oncogene in the hepatic metastasis of colorectal cancer. China Cancer Mag. 2006;16:993–7.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zeng ZS, Weiser MR, Kuntz E, et al. c-Met gene amplification is associated with advanced stage colorectal cancer and liver metastasis. Cancer Lett. 2008;265:258–69.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Shi Weijian, Zhou Qiaoyun, Jiang Fenglian. Clinical value of serum hepatocyte growth factor in hepatic metastasis from colorectal cancer. Clin Oncol Mag. 2007;12:822–4.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Yoon SS, Kim SH, Gonen M, et al. Profile of plasma angiogenic factors before and after hepatectomy for colorectal cancer liver metastasis. Ann Surg Oncol. 2006;13:353–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Nelson AR, Fingleton B, Rothenberg ML, et al. Matrix metalloproteinases: biologic activity and clinical implications. J Clin Oncol. 2000;18:1135–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gentner B, Wein A, Croner RS, et al. Differences in the gene expression profile of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors (TIMPs) in primary colorectal tumors and their synchronous liver metastasis. Anticancer Res. 2009;29:67–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Waas ET, Wobbes T, Ruers T, et al. Circulating gelatinases and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 in colorectal cancer metastatic liver disease. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2006;32:756–63.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ishida H, Murata N, Tada M, et al. Determining the levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in portal and peripheral blood is useful for predicting liver metastasis of colorectal cancer. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2003;33:186–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Alabi AA, Suppiah A, Madden LA, et al. Preoperative serum vascular endothelial growth factor-a is a marker for subsequent recurrence in colorectal cancer patients. Dis Colon Rectum. 2009;52:993–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Alabi AA, Suppiah A, Madden LA, et al. Preoperative serum levels of serum VEGF-C is associated with distant metastasis in colorectal cancer patients. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2009;24:269–74.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ding Wei, Wang Jun, Han Gang. Clinical experimental study on early prediction of colorectal cancer metastatic liver disease. China Lab Diagn. 2007;11:647–9.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Roumen RM, Slooter GD, Croiset van Uchelen FA, et al. Preoperative serum vascular endothelial growth factor is not a marker for subsequent recurrence during long-term follow-up of colorectal cancer patients. Dis Colon Rectum. 2005;48:1070–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Elzagheid A, Algars A, Bendardaf R, et al. E-cadherin expression pattern in primary colorectal carcinomas and their metastasis reflects disease outcome. World J Gastroenterol. 2006;12:4304–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wilmanns C, Grossmann J, Steinhauer S, et al. Soluble serum E-cadherin as a marker of tumor progression in colorectal cancer patients. Clin Exp Metastasis. 2004;21:75–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ueda T, Shimada E, Urakawa T. Serum levels of cytokines in patients with colorectal cancer: possible involvement of interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 in hematogenous metastasis. J Gastroenterol. 1994;29:423–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Chung YC, Chang YF. Serum interleukin-6 levels reflect the disease status of colorectal cancer. J Surg Oncol. 2003;83:222–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Rubie C, Frick VO, Pfeil S, et al. Correlation of IL-8 with induction, progression and metastatic potential of colorectal cancer. World J Gastroenterol. 2007;13:4996–5002.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Haraguchi M, Komuta K, Akashi A, et al. Elevated IL-8 levels in the drainage vein of resectable Dukes’ C colorectal cancer indicate high risk for developing hepatic metastasis. Oncol Rep. 2002;9:159–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hudson JD, Shoaibi MA, Maestro R, et al. A proinflammatory cytokine inhibits p53 tumor suppressor activity. J Exp Med. 1999;190:1375–82.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    He XX, Chen K, Yang J, et al. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor promotes colorectal cancer. Mol Med. 2009;15:1–10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hu Yue, Zhang Suzhan. Current research and application of protein chip technology. Zhejiang Univ J (Med Ed). 2005;34:89–92.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Zheng Shu. Colorectal tumor: basic research and clinical practice. Beijing: People’s Medical Publishing House; 2006.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Bai Xue, Li Shiyong, Yu Bo. Research on differential protein expression of primary tumor and hepatic metastasis of colorectal cancer. 2008;33:487–9.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Zhang Yingnan, Li Shiyong, An Ping. Research on differential expression of proteomics in colorectal cancer hepatic metastasis and meaning thereof. China Stomach Intestine Surg Dep J. 2004;7:312–4Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Li Zuguo, Zhao Liang, Liu Li. Observation on change of several proteins in the animal model serum of colorectal cancer metastasis. China Pathol Mag. 2007;36:48–52.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Chen YD, Zheng S, Yu JK, et al. Artificial neural networks analysis of surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization mass spectra of serum protein pattern distinguishes colorectal cancer from healthy population. Clin Cancer Res. 2004;10:8380–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hundt S, Haug U, Brenner H. Blood markers for early detection of colorectal cancer: a systematic review. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007;16:1935–53.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Xu WH, Chen YD, Hu Y, et al. Preoperatively molecular staging with CM10 protein chip and SELDI-TOF-MS for colorectal cancer patients. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2006;7:235–40.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Shi Yijiu, Zhao Yun, Xu Jianmin. Application of surface enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry to test colorectal cancer hepatic metastasis. China Tumor Mag. 2008;30:910–3.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Lin HM, Chatterjee A, Lin YH, et al. Genome wide expression profiling identifies genes associated with colorectal liver metastasis. Oncol Rep. 2007;17:1541–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ki DH, Jeung HC, Park CH, et al. Whole genome analysis for liver metastasis gene signatures in colorectal cancer. Int J Cancer. 2007;121:2005–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Nadal C, Maurel J, Gascon P. Is there a genetic signature for liver metastasis in colorectal cancer? World J Gastroenterol. 2007;13:5832–44.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht and People's Medical Publishing House 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of MedicineZhejiangChina

Personalised recommendations