Advertisement

Corallivory in the Eastern Pacific

  • Ian C. EnochsEmail author
  • Peter W. Glynn
Chapter
Part of the Coral Reefs of the World book series (CORW, volume 8)

Abstract

Eastern Pacific reef ecosystems are home to a diverse assemblage of corallivorous fishes and invertebrates. It is therefore not surprising that there is a rich history of research on corallivores in the eastern Pacific. In fact, much of what is known today on the topic of corallivory has built upon studies from the eastern Pacific region. Here we review the progression of our understanding of eastern Pacific corallivory and corallivores. We discuss the behavior and ecology of these specialized consumers, dividing our analysis into the larger conspicuous taxa such as the crown-of-thorns sea star (Acanthaster planci) and the guineafowl puffer (Arothron meleagris), as well as into the smaller cryptic species such as the pustulate egg shell (Jenneria pustulata) and coral crustacean guards (Trapezia spp., Alpheus lottini). The majority of species that consume coral tissues are facultative corallivores, feeding on corals only incidentally. Both the negative and positive interactions of corallivores to their prey/hosts are reviewed. We address detrimental direct consumption of coral and how it can ultimately influence growth form, species distributions, population structure, and the asexual reproduction of corals. We examine the cleaning behavior of some corallivorous species as well as their territorial tendencies, which may potentially lead to the exclusion of more lethal coral predators. Despite the high diversity of corallivore taxa, no population outbreaks have been observed in the eastern Pacific; coral colony growth rates and reef accretion proceed apace. Finally, we explore the far-reaching implications of the corallivore feeding strategy, touching on the connections that ultimately link coral biomass with higher trophic levels and the rest of the reef ecosystem.

Keywords

Corallivory Acanthaster Arothron meleagris Food webs Coral mortality 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Thanks are due Michael J. Risk and Ellen R.M. Druffel for help with the radiometric dating. Aníbal Velarde performed and supervised the sorting of Acanthaster skeletal ossicles. G. Kolodziej provided help with manuscript preparation. We are grateful for information and editorial comments provided by T.M. Gosliner, M.M. Palacios, M.S. Pratchett, and an anonymous reviewer who helped to improve this chapter.

References

  1. Abele LG, Patton WK (1976) The size of coral heads and the community biology of associated decapod crustaceans. J Biogeogr 3(1):35–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Achurra-Cárdenas JB, Valdés-Araúz E (1980) Estudio sobre los efectos predatorios de los moluscos Coralliophila abbreviata y Jenneria pustulata de ambos litorales del Istmo de Panama. BSc thesis, Universidad de Panamá, PanamáGoogle Scholar
  3. Adjeroud M, Tsuchiya M (1999) Genetic variation and clonal structure in the scleractinian coral Pocillopora damicornis in the Ryukyu Archipelago, southern Japan. Mar Biol 134(4):753–759CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Allen GR, Robertson DR (1994) Fishes of the tropical eastern Pacific. Crawford House Press, Bathurst, p 332Google Scholar
  5. Allen GR, Robertson DR (1997) An annotated checklist of the fishes of Clipperton Atoll, tropical eastern Pacific. Rev Biol Trop 45(2):813–843Google Scholar
  6. Alvarado JJ, Fernández C (2005) Equinodermos del Parque Nacional Marino Ballena, Pacífico, Costa Rica. Rev Biol Trop 53(3):275–284Google Scholar
  7. Alvarado JJ, Solís-Marín FA, Ahearn CG (2010a) Echinoderm (Echinodermata) diversity in the Pacific coast of Central America. Mar Biodiv 40:45–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Alvarado JJ, Reyes-Bonilla H, Buitrago F, Aguirre-Rubí J, Álvarez del Castillo Cardenas PA (2010b) Coral reefs of the Pacific coast of Nicaragua. Coral Reefs 29(1):201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ayón-Parente M, Hendrickx ME (2010) Species richness and distribution of hermit crabs of the family Diogenidae (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura) in the eastern Pacific. Nauplius 18(1):1–12Google Scholar
  10. Barham EG, Gowdy RW, Wolfson FH (1973) Acanthaster (Echinodermata, Asteroidea) in the Gulf of California. Fish Bull 71:927–942Google Scholar
  11. Barry CK (1965) Ecological study of the decapod crustaceans commensal with branching coral Pocillopora meandrina var. nobilis Verrill. University of Hawai’i, HonoluluGoogle Scholar
  12. Beebe W (1924) Galápagos: world’s end. G.P. Putnam’s Sons, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  13. Beebe W (1926) The Arcturus adventure. G.P. Putnam’s Sons, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  14. Behrens DW, Hermosillo A (2005) Eastern Pacific nudibranchs: a guide to the opisthobranchs from Alaska to Central America. Sea Challengers, Global Interprint Inc, Santa Rosa, CA, p 137Google Scholar
  15. Bertsch H (1984) Jenneria pustulata, the pustulate “cowrie”. Opisthobranch 16(2):10Google Scholar
  16. Birkeland C, Lucas JS (1990) Acanthaster planci: major management problem of coral reefs. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  17. Black R, Prince J (1983) Fauna associated with the coral Pocillopora damicornis at the southern limit of its distribution in Western Australia. J Biogeogr 10(2):135–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bothwell AM (1981) Fragmentation, a means of asexual reproduction and dispersal in the coral genus Acropora (Scleractinia: Astrocoeniida: Acroporidae)—a preliminary report. In: Proceedings of 4th International Coral Reef Symposium, vol 2, pp 137–144Google Scholar
  19. Bruckner AW, Bruckner RJ, Sollins P (2000) Parrotfish predation on live coral: “spot biting” and “focused biting”. Coral Reefs 19(1):50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Caley MJ, Buckley KA, Jones GP (2001) Separating ecological effects of habitat fragmentation, degradation, and loss on coral commensals. Ecology 82(12):3435–3448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Camacho-Garcia Y, Gosliner TM, Valdés Á (2005) Field guide to the sea slugs of the tropical eastern Pacific. California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, p 134Google Scholar
  22. Carpenter RC (1997) Invertebrate predators and grazers. In: Birkeland C (ed) Life and death of coral reefs. Chapman and Hall, New York, pp 198–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Caso ME (1962) Estudios sobre astéridos de México. Observaciones sobre especies pacíficas del género Acanthaster y descripción de una subespecie nueva, Acanthaster ellisii pseudoplanci. An Inst Biol UNAM 32(1–2):313–331Google Scholar
  24. Castro P (1971) The natantian shrimps (Crustacea, Decapoda) associated with invertebrates in Hawaii. Pac Sci 25:395–403Google Scholar
  25. Castro P (1978) Movements between coral colonies in Trapezia ferruginea (Crustacea: Brachyura), an obligate symbiont of scleractinian corals. Mar Biol 46(3):237–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Castro P (1982) Notes on symbiotic decapod crustaceans from Gorgona Island, Colombia, with a revision of the eastern Pacific species of Trapezia (Brachyura, Xanthidae), symbionts of scleractinian corals. An Inst Inv Mar Punta de Betín 12:9–17Google Scholar
  27. Castro P (1996) The eastern Pacific species of Trapezia (Crustacea: Brachyura: Trapeziidae) sibling species symbiotic with scleractinian corals. Bull Mar Sci 58:531–554Google Scholar
  28. Castro P (2015) Symbiotic Brachyura. In: Castro P, Davie PJF, Guinot D, Schram FR, Vaupel Klein JC von (eds) Traité de Zoologie, The Crustacea, vol 9, Part C-I Decapoda: Brachyura (Part 1) pp 543–581Google Scholar
  29. Chesher RH (1969) Destruction of Pacific corals by the sea star Acanthaster planci. Science 165(3890):280–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Chesher RH (1972) The status of knowledge of Panamanian echinoids, 1971, with comments on other echinoderms. Bull Biol Soc Wash 2:139–158Google Scholar
  31. Cole AJ, Pratchett MS (2014) Diversity in diet and feeding behaviour of butterflyfishes; reliance on reef corals versus reef habitats. In: Pratchett MS, Berumen ML, Kapoor B (eds) Biology of butterflyfishes. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 107–139Google Scholar
  32. Cole AJ, Pratchett MS, Jones GP (2008) Diversity and functional importance of coral-feeding fishes on tropical coral reefs. Fish Fisheries 9:286–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Cole AJ, Lawton RJ, Wilson SK, Pratchett MS (2012) Consumption of tabular acroporid corals by reef fishes: a comparison with plant–herbivore interactions. Funct Ecol 26:307–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Coles SL (1980) Species diversity of decapods associated with living and dead reef coral Pocillopora meandrina. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 2:281–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Colgan MW (1987) Coral reef recovery on Guam (Micronesia) after catastrophic predation by Acanthaster planci. Ecology 68(6):1592–1605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Coutière MH (1899) Les Alpheidae, morphologie externe et interne, formes larvaires, bionomie. Masson, ParisCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Cox EP (1986) The effects of a selective corallivore on growth rates and competition for space between two species of Hawaiian corals. J Exper Mar Biol Ecol 101:161–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. D’Asaro CN (1969) The egg capsules of Jenneria pustulata (Lightfoot, 1786) with notes on spawning in the laboratory. Veliger 11(3):182–184Google Scholar
  39. Dalton SJ, Godwin S (2006) Progressive coral tissue mortality following predation by a corallivorous nudibranch (Phestilla sp.). Coral Reefs 25(4):529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Dana T, Wolfson A (1970) Eastern Pacific crown-of-thorns starfish populations in the lower Gulf of California. Trans San Diego Soc Nat Hist 16:83–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Dee LE, Witman JD, Brandt M (2012) Refugia and top-down control of the pencil urchin Eucidaris galapagensis in the Galapagos Marine Reserve. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 416:135–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Demond J (1957) Micronesian reef-associated gastropods. Pac Sci 11:275–341Google Scholar
  43. Dominici-Arosemena A, Wolff M (2006) Reef fish community structure in the tropical eastern Pacific (Panamá): living on a relatively stable rocky reef environment. Helgol Mar Res 60:287–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Done TJ, Dayton PK, Dayton AE, Steger R (1991) Regional and local variability in recovery of shallow coral communities: Moorea, French Polynesia and central Great Barrier Reef. Coral Reefs 9:183–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Druffel E (1995) Pacific bomb radiocarbon coral data. In: IGBP PAGES/World Data Center-A for Paleoclimatology. NOAA/NGDC Paleoclimatology Program, BoulderGoogle Scholar
  46. Edgar GJ, Banks SA, Brandt M, Bustamante RH, Chiriboga A, Earle SA, Garske LE, Glynn PW, Grove JS, Henderson S, Hickman CP, Miller KA, Rivera F, Wellington GM (2010) El Niño, grazers and fisheries interact to greatly elevate extinction risk for Galápagos marine species. Global Change Biol 16:2876–2890CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Endean R (1976) Destruction and recovery of coral reef communities. In: Jones OA, Endean R (eds) Biology and geology of coral reefs, vol III., Biology 2 Academic Press, New York, pp 215–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Enochs IC (2012) Motile cryptofauna associated with live and dead coral substrates: implications for coral mortality and framework erosion. Mar Biol 159:709–722CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Enochs IC, Manzello DP (2012) Species richness of motile cryptofauna across a gradient of reef framework erosion. Coral Reefs 31:653–661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Fong P, Glynn PW (1998) A dynamic size-structured population model: does disturbance control size structure of a population of the massive coral Gardineroseris planulata in the eastern Pacific. Mar Biol 130:663–674CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Frankel E (1977) Previous Acanthaster aggregations in the Great Barrier Reef. In: Proceedings of 3rd International Coral Reef Symposium, vol 1, Miami, pp 201–208Google Scholar
  52. Frankel E (1978) Evidence from the Great Barrier Reef of ancient Acanthaster aggregations. Atoll Res Bull 220:75–93Google Scholar
  53. Froese R, Pauly D (2011) FishBase. Online database. www.fishbase.org
  54. Garth JS (1974) On the occurrence in the eastern tropical Pacific of Indo-west Pacific decapod crustaceans commensal with reef-building corals. In: Proceedings of 2nd International Coral Reef Symposium, vol 1, Brisbane, pp 397–404Google Scholar
  55. Gilchrist SL (1985) Hermit crab corallivore activity. In: Proceedings of 5th International Coral Reef Symposium, vol 5, Tahiti, pp 211–214Google Scholar
  56. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Online database. http://www.gbif.org
  57. Glynn PW (1972) Observations on the ecology of the Caribbean and Pacific coasts of Panama. In: Jones ML (ed) The Panamic biota: some observations prior to a sea-level canal. Bull Biol Soc Wash 2:13–30Google Scholar
  58. Glynn PW (1973) Acanthaster: effect on coral reef growth in Panama. Science 180:504–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Glynn PW (1974) The impact of Acanthaster on corals and coral reefs in the eastern Pacific. Environ Conserv 1(4):295–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Glynn PW (1976) Some physical and biological determinants of coral community structure in the eastern Pacific. Ecol Monogr 46(4):431–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Glynn PW (1980) Defense by symbiotic Crustacea of host corals elicited by chemical cues from predator. Oecologia 47(3):287–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Glynn PW (1981) Acanthaster population regulation by a shrimp and a worm. In: Proceedings of 4th International Coral Reef Symposium, vol 2, Manila, pp 607–612Google Scholar
  63. Glynn PW (1982) Coral communities and their modifications relative to past and prospective Central American seaways. Adv Mar Biol 19:91–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Glynn PW (1983a) Biological interactions. In: Glynn PW, Wellington GM, Wells JW (eds) Corals and coral reefs of the Galápagos Islands. University of California Press, Los Angeles, pp 127–160Google Scholar
  65. Glynn PW (1983b) Increased survivorship in corals harboring crustacean symbionts. Mar Biol Lett 4(2):105–111Google Scholar
  66. Glynn PW (1983c) Crustacean symbionts and the defense of corals: coevolution on the reef? In: Nitecki MH (ed) Coevolution. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp 111–178Google Scholar
  67. Glynn PW (1985) Corallivore population sizes and feeding effects following El Niño (1982–83)-associated coral mortality in Panamá. In: Proceedings of 5th International Coral Reef Symposium, vol 4, Tahiti, pp 183-188Google Scholar
  68. Glynn PW (1987) Some ecological consequences of coral-crustacean guard mutualisms in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Symbiosis 4:301–324Google Scholar
  69. Glynn PW (1988) El Niño warming, coral mortality and reef framework destruction by echinoid bioerosion in the eastern Pacific. Galaxea 7:129–160Google Scholar
  70. Glynn PW (1990) Feeding ecology of selected coral-reef macroconsumers: patterns and effects on coral community structure. In: Dubinsky Z (ed) Ecosystems of the world, vol 25. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 365–400Google Scholar
  71. Glynn PW (1993) Monsoonal upwelling and episodic Acanthaster predation as probable controls of coral reef distribution and community structure in Oman, Indian Ocean. Atoll Res Bull 379:1–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Glynn PW (1994) State of coral reefs in the Galápagos Islands: natural vs anthropogenic impacts. Mar Poll Bull 29:131–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Glynn PW (2003) Coral communities and coral reefs of Ecuador. In: Cortés J (ed) Latin American coral reefs. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, pp 449–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Glynn PW (2004) High complexity food webs in low-diversity eastern Pacific reef-coral communities. Ecosystems 7(4):358–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Glynn PW (2008) Food-web structure and dynamics of eastern tropical Pacific coral reefs: Panamá and Galápagos Islands. In: McClanahan TR, Branch GM (eds) Food webs and the dynamics of marine reefs. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 185–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Glynn PW (2011) In tandem reef coral and cryptic metazoan declines and extinctions. Bull Mar Sci 87:767–794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Glynn PW (2013) Fine-scale interspecific interactions on coral reefs: functional roles of small and cryptic metazoans. Smith Contrib Mar Sci 39:229–248Google Scholar
  78. Glynn PW, Ault JS (2000) A biogeographic analysis and review of the far eastern Pacific coral reef region. Coral Reefs 19(1):1–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Glynn PW, Colgan MW (1988) Defense of corals and enhancement of coral diversity by territorial damselfishes. In: Proceedings of 6th International Coral Reef Symposium, vol 2, Townsville, pp 157–163Google Scholar
  80. Glynn PW, Enochs IC (2011) Invertebrates and their roles in coral reef ecosystems. In: Dubinsky Z, Stambler N (eds) Coral reefs: an ecosystem in transition. Springer, New York, pp 273–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Glynn PW, Wellington GM (1983) Corals and coral reefs of the Galápagos Islands. University of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  82. Glynn PW, Stewart RH, McCosker JE (1972) Pacific coral reefs of Panama: structure, distribution and predators. Geol Rundsch, Int J Earth Sci 61(2):483–519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Glynn PW, Wellington GM, Birkeland C (1979) Coral reef growth in the Galapagos: limitation by sea urchins. Science 203:47–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Glynn PW, von Prahl H, Guhl F (1982) Coral reefs of Gorgona Island, Colombia, with special reference to corallivores and their influence on community structure and reef development. An Inst Invest Mar Punta de Betin 12:185–214Google Scholar
  85. Glynn PW, Perez M, Gilchrist SL (1985) Lipid decline in stressed corals and their crustacean symbionts. Biol Bull 168(2):276–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Glynn PW, Veron JEN, Wellington GM (1996) Clipperton Atoll (eastern Pacific): oceanography, geomorphology, reef-building coral ecology and biogeography. Coral Reefs 15:71–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Glynn PW, Wellington GM, Wieters EA, Navarrete SA (2003) Reef-building coral communities of Easter Island (Rapa Nui). In: Cortés J (ed) Latin American coral reefs. Elsevier Science BV, Amsterdam, pp 473–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Glynn PW, Enochs IC, Afflerbach JA, Brandtneris VW, Serafy JE (2014) Eastern Pacific reef fish responses to coral recovery following El Niño disturbances. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 495:233–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Glynn PW, Riegl B, Purkis S, Kerr JM, Smith TB (2015) Coral reef recovery in the Galápagos Islands: the northernmost islands (Darwin and Wenman). Coral Reefs. doi: 10.1007/s00338-015-1280-4
  90. Gochfeld DJ (2010) Territorial damselfishes facilitate survival of corals by providing an associational defense against predators. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 398:137–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Gochfeld DJ, Aeby GS (1997) Control of populations of the coral-feeding nudibranch Phestilla sibogae by fish and crustacean predators. Mar Biol 130(1):63–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Gosliner TM, Behrens DW, Valdés Á (2008) Indo-Pacific nudibranchs and sea slugs: a field guide to the world’s most diverse fauna. Sea Challengers/California Academy of Sciences, Gig Harbor/San Francisco, p 426Google Scholar
  93. Gotelli NJ, Gilchrist SL, Abele LG (1985) Population biology of Trapezia spp. and other coral-associated decapods. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 21(1):89–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Guzmán HM (1986) Estructura de la comunidad arrecifal de la Isla del Caño, Costa Rica y el efecto de perturbaciones naturales severas. MS thesis, University of Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa RicaGoogle Scholar
  95. Guzmán HM (1988a) Distribución y abundancia de organismos coralívoros en los arrecifes coralinos de la Isla del Caño, Costa Rica. Rev Biol Trop 36(2):191–207Google Scholar
  96. Guzmán HM (1988b) Feeding activity of the corallivorous gastropod Quoyula monodonta (Blainville). Rev Biol Trop 36(2A):209–212Google Scholar
  97. Guzmán HM, Cortés J (1989a) Growth rates of eight species of scleractinian corals in the eastern Pacific (Costa Rica). Bull Mar Sci 44(3):1186–1194Google Scholar
  98. Guzmán HM, Cortés J (1989b) Coral reef community structure at Caño Island, Pacific Costa Rica. Pubb Staz Zool Napoli I: Mar Ecol 10:23–41Google Scholar
  99. Guzmán HM, López JD (1991) Diet of the corallivorous pufferfish Arothron meleagris (Pisces: Tetraodontidae) at Gorgona Island, Colombia. Rev Biol Trop 39:203–206Google Scholar
  100. Guzmán HM, Robertson DR (1989) Population and feeding responses of the corallivorous pufferfish Arothron meleagris to coral mortality in the eastern Pacific. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 55:121–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Haramaty L (1991) Reproduction effort in the nudibranch Phestilla sibogae: calorimetric analysis of food and eggs. Pac Sci 45(3):257–262Google Scholar
  102. Harris LG (1975) Studies on the life history of two coral-eating nudibranchs of the genus Phestilla. Biol Bull 149(3):539–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Henderson JA, Lucas JS (1971) Larval development and metamorphosis of Acanthaster planci (Asteroidea). Nature 232:655–657CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Hickman CP Jr (1998) A field guide to the sea stars and other echinoderms of Galápagos., Galápagos marine life series, Sugar Spring Press, Lexington, p 83Google Scholar
  105. Hickman CP Jr, Finet Y (1999) A field guide to marine molluscs of Galápagos: an illustrated guidebook to the common intertidal and shallow-water snails, bivalves, and chitons of the Galápagos Islands. Sugar Spring Press, Lexington, p 150Google Scholar
  106. Hickman CP Jr, Zimmerman TL (2000) A field guide to crustaceans of Galápagos: an illustrated guidebook to the barnacles, shrimps, lobsters, and crabs of the Galápagos Islands., Galápagos marine life series, Sugar Spring Press, Lexington, p 156Google Scholar
  107. Highsmith RC (1982) Reproduction by fragmentation in corals. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 7(2):207–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Hixon MA, Brostoff WN (1983) Damselfish as keystone species in reverse: intermediate disturbance and diversity of reef algae. Science 220:511–513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Huber ME, Coles SL (1986) Resource utilization and competition among the five Hawaiian species of Trapezia (Crustacea, Brachyura). Mar Ecol Prog Ser 30:21–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO. The Ocean Biogeographic Information System. Online database. http://www.iobis.org
  111. Jones GP, Santana L, McCook LJ, McCormick MI (2006) Resource use and impact of three herbivorous damselfishes on coral reef communities. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 328:215–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Kim W, Abele LG (1988) The snapping shrimp genus Alpheus from the eastern Pacific (Decapoda: Caridea: Alpheidae). Smith Contrib Zool 454:1–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Knudsen JW (1967) Trapezia and Tetralia (Decapoda, Brachyura, Xanthidae) as obligate ectoparasites of pocilloporid and acroporid corals. Pac Sci 21:51–57Google Scholar
  114. Kroh A (2010) Eucidaris thouarsii galapagensis Döderlein, 1887. In: Kroh A, Mooi R (eds) World Echinoidea database. World register of marine species. http://www.marinespecies.org/echinoidea/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=513653
  115. Lessios HA (2005) Echinoids of the Pacific waters of Panama: status of knowledge and new records. Rev Biol Trop (Int J Trop Biol) 53(Suppl 3):147–170Google Scholar
  116. Lessios HA, Kessing BD, Robertson DR, Paulay G (1999) Phylogeography of the pantropical sea urchin Eucidaris in relation to land barriers and ocean currents. Evolution 53:806–817CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Lucas JS (1973) Reproductive and larval biology of Acanthaster planci (L.) in Great Barrier Reef waters. Micronesica 9:197–203Google Scholar
  118. Madsen FJ (1955) A note on the sea-star genus Acanthaster. Vidensk Medd fra Dansk naturh Foren 117:179–192Google Scholar
  119. Maes VO (1967) The littoral marine mollusks of Cocos-Keeling Islands (Indian Ocean). P Acad Nat Sci Phila 119(4):93–217Google Scholar
  120. McClanahan TR, Maina J, Starger CJ, Herron-Perez P, Dusek E (2005) Detriments to post-bleaching recovery of corals. Coral Reefs 24:230–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Miller KJ, Ayre DJ (2004) The role of sexual and asexual reproduction in structuring high latitude populations of the reef coral Pocillopora damicornis. Heredity 92(6):557–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Moran DA (1984) Additions to the known anomuran fauna of El Salvador, Central America (Crustacea: Decapoda). J Crustacean Biol 4(1):72–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Moran PJ (1986) The Acanthaster phenomenon. Oceanogr Mar Biol Annu Rev 24:379–480Google Scholar
  124. Moran PJ, Reichelt RE, Bradbury RH (1986) An assessment of the geological evidence for previous Acanthaster outbreaks. Coral Reefs 4:235–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Motta PJ (1988) Functional morphology of the feeding apparatus of ten species of Pacific butterflyfishes (Perciformes, Chaetodontidae): an ecomorphological approach. Environ Biol Fishes 22:39–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Mumby PJ (2009) Herbivory versus corallivory: are parrotfish good or bad for Caribbean coral reefs? Coral Reefs 28:683–690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Narváez K, Zapata FA (2010) First record and impact of the crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster planci (Spinulosida: Acanthasteridae) on corals of Malpelo Island, Colombian Pacific. Rev Biol Trop 58(supp 1):139–143Google Scholar
  128. National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. NMNH Invertebrate Zoology Collections. Online database. http://collections.nmnh.si.edu/search/iz/
  129. National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution: NMNH Vertebrate Zoology Fishes Collections. Online database. http://collections.nmnh.si.edu/search/fishes/
  130. Navas-Camacho R, Rodríguez-Ramírez A, Reyes-Nivia MC (2010) Agents of coral mortality on reef formations of the Colombian Pacific. Rev Biol Trop 58(supp 1):133–138Google Scholar
  131. Nuñez-Vázquez EJ, Yotsu-Yamashita M, Sierra-Beltrán AP, Yasumoto T, Ochoa JL (2000) Toxicities and distribution of tetrodotoxin in the tissues of puffer fish found in the coast of the Baja California Peninsula, Mexico. Toxicon 38:729–734CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Oliverio M (2008) Coralliophilinae (Neogastropoda: Muricidae) from the southwest Pacific. In: Héros V, Cowie RH, Bouchet P (eds) Tropical deep-sea benthos: Mémoires du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle. MNHN, Paris, pp 481–585Google Scholar
  133. Opitz S (1996) Trophic interactions in Caribbean coral reefs. ICLARM, ManilaGoogle Scholar
  134. Oramas NFA (1979) Estudio ecológico del Jenneria pustulata (Mollusca, Gastropoda). BSc thesis, Escuela de Biología, University of Panama, PanamáGoogle Scholar
  135. Palacios MM, Muñoz CG, Zapata FA (2014) Fish corallivory on a pocilloporid reef and experimental coral responses to predation. Coral Reefs. doi: 10.1007/s00338-014-1173-y
  136. Parker GM (1984) Dispersal of zooxanthellae on coral reefs by predators on cnidarians. Biol Bull 167:159–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Patton WK (1974) Community structure among the animals inhabiting the coral Pocillopora damicornis at Heron Island, Australia. In: Vernberg WB (ed) Symbiosis in the sea 2. University of South Carolina Press, Columbia, pp 219–243Google Scholar
  138. Paz-García DA, Aldana-Moreno A, Cabral-Tena RA (2012) High predation by the corallivore sea snail Jenneria pustulata in a high-latitude reef in the Gulf of California. Mar Biodiv Rec 5:e94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Porter JW (1972) Predation by Acanthaster and its effect on coral species diversity. Am Nat 106(950):487–492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Porter JW (1974) Community structure of coral reefs on opposite sides of the Isthmus of Panama. Science 186:543–545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Pratchett MS (2001) Influence of coral symbionts on feeding preferences of crown-of-thorns starfish Acanthaster planci in the western Pacific. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 214:111–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Pratchett MS (2014) Feeding preferences and dietary specialization among obligate coral-feeding butterflyfishes. In: Pratchett MS, Berumen ML, Kapoor B (eds) Biology of butterflyfishes. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 140–179Google Scholar
  143. Pratchett MS, Hoey AS, Feary DA, Bauman AG, Burt JA, Riegl B (2013) Functional composition of Chaetodon butterflyfishes at a peripheral and extreme coral reef location, the Persian Gulf. Mar Poll Bull 72:333–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Preston EM (1973) A Computer simulation of competition among five sympatric congeneric species of xanthid crabs. Ecology 54(3):469–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Randall JE (1967) Food habits of reef fishes of the West Indies. Stud Trop Oceanogr 5:665–847Google Scholar
  146. Randall JE (2005) Reef and shore fishes of the South Pacific, New Caledonia to Tahiti and the Pitcairn Islands. University of Hawai’i Press, HonoluluGoogle Scholar
  147. Reaka-Kudla ML, Feingold JS, Glynn PW (1996) Experimental studies of rapid bioerosion of coral reefs in the Galapagos Islands. Coral Reefs 15:101–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Reyes-Bonilla H, Calderon-Aguilera LE (1999) Population density, distribution and consumption rates of three corallivores at Cabo Pulmo Reef, Gulf of California, Mexico. Mar Ecol-Evol Persp 20(3–4):347–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Reyes-Bonilla H, Alvarez del Castillo Cárdenas PA, Calderón Aguilera LE, Erosa Ricárdez CE, Fernández Rivera Melo FJ, Frausto TC, Luna Salguero BM, Moreno Sánchez XG, Mozqueda Torres MC, Norzagaray López CO, Petatán Ramírez D (2014) Servicios ambientales de arrecifes coralinos: el caso del Parque Nacional Cabo Pulmo, B.C.S. In: Urciaga García JI (ed) Desarrollo regional en Baja California Sur. Una perspectiva de los servicios ecosistémicos. UABCS, La Paz, Mexico, pp 38–63Google Scholar
  150. Richmond RH (1987) Energetic relationships and biogeographical differences among fecundity, growth and reproduction in the reef coral Pocillopora damicornis. Bull Mar Sci 41(2):594–604Google Scholar
  151. Rinkevich B, Wolodarsky Z, Loya Y (1991) Coral-crab association: a compact domain of a multilevel trophic system. Hydrobiologia 216–217(1):279–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Robertson R (1970) Review of the predators and parasites of stony corals, with special reference to symbiotic prosobranch gastropods. Pac Sci 24:43–54Google Scholar
  153. Robertson DR (2009) Shorefishes of the tropical eastern Pacific online information system. Smith Contr Mar Sci 197–208. Online database. http://biogeodb.stri.edu/sftep/
  154. Rothans TC, Miller AC (1991) A link between biologically imported particulate organic nutrients and the detritus food web in reef communities. Mar Biol 110:145–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Rotjan RD, Lewis SM (2008) Impact of coral predators on tropical reefs. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 367:73–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Rudman WB (1981) Further studies on the anatomy and ecology of opisthobranch molluscs feeding on the scleractinian coral Porites. Zool J Linn Soc Lond 71(4):373–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Rudman WB (1982) A new species of Phestilla: the first record of a corallivorous aeolid nudibranch from tropical America. J Zool 198:465–471Google Scholar
  158. Shima JS, Osenberg CW, Stier AC (2010) The vermetid gastropod Dendropoma maximum reduces coral growth and survival. Biol Lett 6(6):815–818CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Sonnenholzner JI, Ladah LB, Lafferty KD (2009) Cascading effects of fishing on Galapagos rocky reef communities: reanalysis using corrected data. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 375:209–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Steinbeck J, Ricketts EF (1941) Sea of Cortez: a leisurely journal of travel and research. Penguin Group USA Inc., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  161. Stella JS, Munday PL, Jones GP (2011) Effects of coral bleaching on the obligate coral-dwelling crab Trapezia cymodoce. Coral Reefs 30:719–727CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Stewart HL, Holbrook SJ, Schmitt RJ, Brooks AJ (2006) Symbiotic crabs maintain coral health by clearing sediments. Coral Reefs 25(4):609–615CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Stier AC, McKeon CS, Osenberg CW, Shima JS (2010) Guard crabs alleviate deleterious effects of vermetid snails on a branching coral. Coral Reefs 29(4):1019–1022CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Stimson J (1990) Stimulation of fat-body production in the polyps of the coral Pocillopora damicornis by the presence of mutualistic crabs of the genus Trapezia. Mar Biol 106:211–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Stoddart JA (1984) Genetic differentiation amongst populations of the coral Pocillopora damicornis off southwestern Australia. Coral Reefs 3(3):149–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Stuiver M, Reimer PJ, Reimer RW (2005) CALIB 5.0. http://calib.qub.ac.uk/calib/
  167. Stuivier M, Reimer PJ (1993) Extended 14C database and revised CALIB radiocarbon calibration program. Radiocarbon 35:215–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Tunnicliffe V (1979) The role of boring sponges in coral fracture. In: Levi C, Boury-Esnault N (eds) Collogues Internationaux du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, vol 291. CNRS, Paris, pp 309–315Google Scholar
  169. Vannini M (1985) A shrimp that speaks crab-ese. J Crust Biol 5(1):160–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Veron JEN (1995) Corals in space and time. The biogeography and evolution of the Scleractinia. UNSW Press, Sydney, Australia, p 321Google Scholar
  171. Vogler C, Benzie J, Lessios H, Barber P, Wörheide G (2008) A threat to coral reefs multiplied? Four species of crown-of-thorns starfish. Biol Lett 4:696–699CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Walbran PD, Henderson RA, Jull AJT, Head MJ (1989a) Evidence from sediments of long-term Acanthaster planci predation on corals of the Great Barrier Reef. Science 245:847–850CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Walbran PD, Henderson RA, Faithful JW, Polach HA, Sparks RJ, Wallace G, Lowe DC (1989b) Crown-of-thorns starfish outbreaks on the Great Barrier Reef: a geological perspective based upon the sediment record. Coral Reefs 8:67–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Weber JN, Woodhead PMJ (1970) Ecological studies of the coral predator Acanthaster planci in the south Pacific. Mar Biol 6(1):12–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Wellington GM (1982) Depth zonation of corals in the Gulf of Panama: control and facilitation by resident reef fishes. Ecol Monogr 52:223–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Whitaker K (2006) Genetic evidence for mixed modes of reproduction in the coral Pocillopora damicornis and its effect on population structure. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 306:115–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Wicksten MK, Hendrickx ME (2003) An updated checklist of benthic marine and brackish water shrimps (Decapoda: Penaeoidea, Stenopodidea, Caridea) from the eastern tropical Pacific. In: Hendrickx ME (ed) Contributions to the study of eastern Pacific crustaceans, vol 2. Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico, DF, pp 49–76Google Scholar
  178. Williams AH (1980) The threespot damselfish: a noncarnivorous keystone species. The Amer Nat 116:138–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Yamaguchi M (1973) Early life-histories of coral reef asteroids, with special reference to Acanthaster planci (L.). In: Jones OA, Endean R (eds) Biology and geology of coral reefs, vol 2. Biology I. Academic Press, London, pp 369–387Google Scholar
  180. Zamorano P, Barrientos-Luján NA, Ramírez-Luna S (2008) Malacofauna del infralitoral rocoso de Agua Blanca, Santa Elena Cozoaltepec, Oaxaca. Ciencia y Mar 12:19–33. http://www.umar.mx/revista/36/malacofauna.pdf

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cooperative Institute of Marine and Atmospheric Studies, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric ScienceUniversity of MiamiMiamiUSA
  2. 2.Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML), Ocean Chemistry and Ecosystem Division (OCED), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)MiamiUSA
  3. 3.Department of Marine Biology and Ecology, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric ScienceUniversity of MiamiMiamiUSA

Personalised recommendations