Environmental Biology of Percid Fishes

  • Zachary S. Feiner
  • Tomas O. Höök


The large percids, including Perca and Sander species, are economically and ecologically important species that inhabit large temperature regions of the Northern Hemisphere. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the environmental biology of the Perca (including yellow perch P. flavescens and Eurasian perch P. fluviatilis) and Sander (including walleye S. vitreus, pikeperch S. lucioperca, and sauger S. canadensis) genera, on which the majority of fisheries and aquaculture practices are focused. Through a comprehensive literature review, we discuss how individual- and population-level vital rates, including growth, foraging, reproduction, recruitment, and mortality, are mediated by biotic (e.g., density dependence, resource availability) and abiotic (e.g., temperature, light) environmental variables. As fisheries exploitation is a major source of size-selective mortality in many percid populations, we also examine the potential impacts of fishing mortality on both population metrics and individual vital rates, and identify several research areas that require further investigation. Through this review we aim to identify the major environmental drivers of variation in percid vital rates and thereby inform management practices for both wild and cultured percid populations.


Perca Sander Fisheries Exploitation Ecology 


  1. Ali MA, Ryder RA, Anctil M (1977) Photoreceptors and visual pigments as related to behavioral responses and preferred habitats of perches (Perca spp.) and pikeperches (Stizostedion spp.). J Fish Res Board Can 34:1475–1480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson MR, Fisher SJ, Willis DW (1998) Relationship between larval and juvenile yellow perch abundance in eastern South Dakota glacial lakes. N Am J Fish Manag 18:989–991CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andree SR, Feiner ZS, Bledsoe JW, Cragun AM, Höök TO (2015) Ontogenetic variability of maternal effects in an iteroparous fish. Ecol Freshw Fish. doi: 10.1111/eff.12153 Google Scholar
  4. Arend KK, Beletsky D, DePinto JV, Ludsin SA, Roberts JJ, Rucinski DK, Scavia D, Schwab DJ, Höök TO (2011) Seasonal and interannual effects of hypoxia on fish habitat quality in central Lake Erie. Freshw Biol 56:366–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baccante DA, Colby PJ (1996) Harvest, density, and reproductive characteristics of North American walleye populations. Ann Zool Fenn 33:601–615Google Scholar
  6. Baccante DA, Reid DM (1988) Fecundity changes in two exploited walleye populations. N Am J Fish Manag 8:199–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barot S, Heino M, O’Brien L, Dieckmann U (2004) Long-term trend in the maturation reaction norm of two cod stocks. Ecol Appl 14:1257–1271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Beard TD Jr, Hansen MJ, Carpenter SR (2003) Development of a regional stock-recruitment model for understanding factors affecting walleye recruitment in northern Wisconsin lakes. Trans Am Fish Soc 132:382–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Beletsky D, Mason DM, Schwab DJ, Rutherford ES, Janssen J, Clapp DF, Dettmers JM (2007) Biophysical model of larval yellow perch advection and settlement in Lake Michigan. J Great Lakes Res 33:842–866CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bergman E (1987) Temperature-dependent differences in foraging ability of two percids, Perca fluviatilis and Gymnocephalus cernuus. Environ Biol Fish 19:45–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Blanck A, Lamouroux N (2007) Large-scale intraspecific variation in life-history traits of European freshwater fish. J Biogeogr 34:862–875CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brandt SB, Mason DM, MacNeill DB, Coates T, Gannon JE (1987) Predation by alewives on larvae of yellow perch in Lake Ontario. Trans Am Fish Soc 116:641–645CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brandt SB, Costantini M, Kolesar S, Ludsin SA, Mason DM, Rae CM, Zhang H (2011) Does hypoxia reduce habitat quality for Lake Erie walleye (Sander vitreus)? A bioenergetics perspective. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 68:857–879CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bronte CR, Selgeby JH, Swedberg DV (1993) Dynamics of a yellow perch population in western Lake Superior. N Am J Fish Manag 13:511–523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brooking TE, Rudstam LG, Olson MH, VanDeValk AJ (1998) Size-dependent alewife predation on larval walleyes in laboratory experiments. N Am J Fish Manag 18:960–965CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bulkowski L, Meade JW (1983) Changes in phototaxis during early development of walleye. Trans Am Fish Soc 112:445–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Burnett JAD, Ringler NH, Lantry BF, Johnson JH (2002) Double-crested cormorant predation on yellow perch in the eastern basin of Lake Ontario. J Great Lakes Res 28:202–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Busch W-DN, Scholl RL, Hartman WL (1975) Environmental factors affecting the strength of walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) year-classes in western Lake Erie, 1960–70. J Fish Res Board Can 32:1733–1743CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Byström P, Garcia-Berthou E (1999) Density dependent growth and size-specific competitive interactions in young fish. Oikos 86:217–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cai Y, Summerfelt RC (1992) Effects of temperature and size on oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion by walleye. Aquaculture 104:127–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Campbell EA (1998) Predation by small walleyes on yellow perch: effects of prey size distribution. Trans Am Fish Soc 127:588–597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Carlson AR, Blocher J, Herman LJ (1980) Growth and survival of channel catfish and yellow perch exposed to lowered constant and diurnally fluctuating dissolved oxygen concentrations. Prog Fish Cult 42:73–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Casselman SJ, Schulte-Hostedde AI, Montgomerie R (2006) Sperm quality influences male fertilization success in walleye (Sander vitreus). Can J Fish Aquat Sci 63:2119–2125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Čech M, Peterka J, Říha M, Jůza T, Kubečka J (2009) Distribution of egg strands of perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) with respect to depth and spawning substrate. Hydrobiologia 630:105–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Chezik KA, Lester NP, Venturelli PA (2014) Fish growth and degree-days I: selecting a base temperature for a within-population study. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 71:47–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ciereszko RE, Dabrowski K, Ciereszko A, Ebeling J, Ottobre JS (1997) Effects of temperature and photoperiod on reproduction of female yellow perch Perca flavescens: plasma concentrations of steroid hormones, spontaneous and induced ovulation, and quality of eggs. J World Aquacult Soc 28:344–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Clady MD (1976) Influence of temperature and wind on the survival of early states of yellow perch, Perca flavescens. J Fish Res Board Can 33:1887–1893CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Colby PJ, Baccante DA (1996) Dynamics of an experimentally exploited walleye population: sustainable yield estimate. Ann Zool Fenn 33:589–599Google Scholar
  29. Colby PJ, Nepszy SJ (1981) Variation among stocks of walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum): management implications. Can J Fish Aquat Res 38:1814–1831CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Collingsworth PD, Marschall EA (2011a) Spatial and temporal patterns in maternal energetic traits of yellow perch (Perca flavescens) in Lake Erie. Freshw Biol 56:2500–2513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Collingsworth PD, Marschall EA (2011b) Identifying relationships between catches of spawning condition yellow perch and environmental variables in the western basin of Lake Erie. Trans Am Fish Soc 140:31–36Google Scholar
  32. Craig JF, Kipling C (1983) Reproduction effort versus the environment; case histories of Windermere perch, Perca fluviatilis L., and pike, Esox lucius L. J Fish Biol 22:713–727CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. DeBruyne RL, Coleman JTH, Jackson JR, Rudstam LG, VanDeValk AJ (2013) Analysis of prey selection by double-crested cormorants: a 15-year diet study in Oneida Lake, New York. Trans Am Fish Soc 142:430–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Dettmers JM, Janssen J, Pientka B, Fulford RS, Jude DJ (2005) Evidence across multiple scales for offshore transport of yellow perch (Perca flavescens) larvae in Lake Michigan. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 62:2683–2693CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Diana JS, Salz R (1990) Energy storage, growth, and maturation of yellow perch from different locations in Saginaw Bay, Michigan. Trans Am Fish Soc 119:976–984CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Dibattista JD, Feldheim KA, Gruber SH, Hendry AP (2007) When bigger is not better: selection against large size, high condition and fast growth in juvenile lemon sharks. J Evol Biol 20:201–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Diehl S (1993) Effects of habitat structure on resource availability, diet and growth of benthivorous perch, Perca fluviatilis. Oikos 61:403–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Fielder DG (2010) Response of yellow perch in Les Cheneaux Islands, Lake Huron to declining numbers of double-crested cormorants stemming from control activities. J Great Lakes Res 36:207–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Fielder DG, Thomas MV (2006) Fish population dynamics of Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron 1998–2004. Michigan department of natural resources, fisheries research report 2083, Ann ArborGoogle Scholar
  40. Fielder DG, Schaeffer JS, Thomas MV (2007) Environmental and ecological conditions surrounding the production of large year classes of walleye (Sander vitreus) in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron. J Great Lakes Res 33(sp1):118–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Fitzgerald DG, Forney JL, Rudstam LG, Irwin BJ, VanDeValk AJ (2006) Gizzard shad put a freeze on winter mortality of age-0 yellow perch but not white perch. Ecol Appl 16:1487–1501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Forney JL (1971) Development of dominant year classes in a yellow perch population. Trans Am Fish Soc 100:739–749CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Forsythe PS, Doll JC, Lauer TE (2012) Abiotic and biotic correlates of yellow perch recruitment to age-2 in southern Lake Michigan, 1984–2007. Fish Manag Ecol 19:389–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Fox MG, Flowers DD (1990) Effect of fish density on growth, survival, and food consumption by juvenile walleyes in rearing ponds. Trans Am Fish Soc 119:112–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Frankiewicz P, Dabrowski K, Martyniak A, Zalewski M (1999) Cannibalism as a regulatory force of pike perch, Stizostedion lucioperca (L.), population dynamics in the lowland Sulejou reservoir (Central Poland). Hydrobiologia 408(409):47–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Frisk M, Skov PV, Steffensen JF (2012) Thermal optimum for pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) and the use of ventilation frequency as a predictor of metabolic rate. Aquaculture 324–325:151–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Fulford RS, Rice JA, Miller TJ, Binkowski FP, Dettmers JM, Belonger B (2006) Foraging selectivity by larval yellow perch (Perca flavescens): implications for understanding recruitment in small and large lakes. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 63:28–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Galarowicz TL, Wahl DH (2003) Differences in growth, consumption, and metabolism among walleyes from different latitudes. Trans Am Fish Soc 132:425–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Galarowicz TL, Wahl DH (2005) Foraging by a young-of-the-year piscivore: the role of predator size, prey type, and density. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 62:2330–2342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Galarowicz TL, Adams JA, Wahl DH (2006) The influence of prey availability on ontogenetic diet shifts of a juvenile piscivore. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 63:1722–1733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Gardeur J-N, Mathis N, Kobilinksy A, Brun-Bellut J (2007) Simultaneous effects of nutritional and environmental factors on growth and flesh quality of Perca fluviatilis using a fractional factorial design study. Aquaculture 273:50–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Garvey JE, Ostrand KG, Wahl DH (2004) Energetics, predation, and ration affect size-dependent growth of fish during winter. Ecology 85:2860–2871CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Graeb BDS, Dettmers JM, Wahl DH, Cáceres CE (2004) Fish size and prey availability affect growth, survival, prey selection, and foraging behavior of larval yellow perch. Trans Am Fish Soc 133:504–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Graeb BDS, Galarowicz T, Wahl DH, Dettmers JM, Simpson MJ (2005) Foraging behavior, morphology, and life history variation determine the ontogeny of piscivory in two closely related predators. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 62:2010–2020CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Graham DM, Sprules WG (1992) Size and species selection of zooplankton by larval and juvenile walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) in Oneida Lake, New York. Can J Zool 70:2059–2067CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Griffiths D, Kirkwood RC (1995) Seasonal variation in growth, mortality and fat stores of roach and perch in Lough Neagh, Northern Ireland. J Fish Biol 47:537–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Guma’a SA (1978) The effects of temperature on the development and mortality of eggs of perch, Perca fluviatilis. Freshw Biol 8:221–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Guzzo MM, Haffner GD, Legler ND, Rush SA, Fisk AT (2013) Fifty years later: trophic ecology and niche overlap of a native and non-indigenous fish species in the western basin of Lake Erie. Biol Invasions 15:1695–1711CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hansen MJ, Bozek MA, Newby JR, Newman SP, Staggs MD (1998) Factors affecting recruitment of walleyes in Escanaba Lake, Wisconsin, 1958–1996. N Am J Fish Manag 18:764–774CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Hartman KJ, Margraf FJ (1992) Effects of prey and predator abundances on prey consumption and growth of walleyes in western Lake Erie. Trans Am Fish Soc 121:245–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Hartman KJ, Margraf FJ (1993) Evidence of predatory control of yellow perch (Perca flavescens) recruitment in Lake Erie, U.S.A. J Fish Biol 43:109–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Hayes DB, Taylor WW (1990) Reproductive strategy in yellow perch (Perca flavescens): effects of diet ontogeny, mortality, and survival costs. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 47:921–927CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Hayward RS, Margraf FJ (1987) Eutrophication effects on prey size and food available to yellow perch in Lake Erie. Trans Am Fish Soc 116:210–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Headly HC, Lauer TE (2008) Density-dependent growth of yellow perch in southern Lake Michigan, 1984–2004. N Am J Fish Manag 28:57–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Heath DD, Roff DA (1996) The role of trophic bottlenecks in stunting: a field test of an allocation model of growth and reproduction in yellow perch, Perca flavescens. Environ Biol Fish 45:53–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Heerman L, Eriksson L-O, Magnhagen C, Borcherding J (2009) Size-dependent energy storage and winter mortality of perch. Ecol Freshw Fish 18:560–571CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Heibo E, Vøllestad LA (2002) Life-history variation in perch (Perca fluviatilis) in five neighbouring Norwegian lakes. Ecol Freshw Fish 11:270–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Heibo E, Magnhagen C, Vøllestad LA (2005) Latitudinal variation in life-history traits in Eurasian perch. Ecology 86:3377–3386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Heidinger RC, Brooks RC, Leitner D, Soderstrom I (1997) Prediction of walleye egg and embryo survival at two stages of development. Prog Fish Cult 59:64–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Henderson BA, Morgan GE (2002) Maturation of walleye by age, size, and surplus energy. J Fish Biol 61:999–1011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Henderson BA, Nepszy SJ (1988) Recruitment of yellow perch (Perca flavescens) affected by stock size and water temperature in Lakes Erie and St. Clair, 1965–1985. J Great Lakes Res 14:205–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Henderson BA, Trivedi T, Collins N (2000) Annual cycle of energy allocation to growth and reproduction of yellow perch. J Fish Biol 57:122–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Henderson BA, Collins N, Morgan GE, Vaillancourt A (2003) Sexual size dimorphism of walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum). Can J Fish Aquat Sci 60:1345–1352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Hermelink B, Wuertz S, Trubiroha A, Rennert B, Kloas W, Schulz C (2011) Influence of temperature on puberty and maturation of pikeperch, Sander lucioperca. Gen Comp Endocrinol 172:282–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Heyer CJ, Miller TJ, Binkowski FP, Caldarone EM, Rice JA (2001) Maternal effects as a recruitment mechanism in Lake Michigan yellow perch (Perca flavescens). Can J Fish Aquat Sci 58:1477–1487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Hinshaw JM (1985) Effects of illumination and prey contrast on survival and growth of larval yellow perch Perca flavescens. Trans Am Fish Soc 114:540–545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Hjort J (1914) Fluctuations in the great fisheries of northern Europe reviewed in the light of biological research. Rapp p-v réun – Cons int explor mer 20:1–228Google Scholar
  78. Hockett CT, Mundahl ND (1989) Effects of black spot disease on thermal tolerances and condition factors of three cyprinid fishes. J Freshw Ecol 5:67–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Hokanson KEF (1977) Temperature requirements of some percids and adaptations to the seasonal temperature cycle. J Fish Res Board Can 34:1524–1550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Hokanson KEF, Koenst WM (1986) Revised estimate of growth requirements and lethal temperature limits of juvenile walleyes. Prog Fish Cult 48:90–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Höök TO, McCormick MJ, Rutherford ES, Mason D, Carter GS (2006) Short-term water mass movements in Lake Michigan: implications for larval fish transport. J Great Lakes Res 32:728–737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Houde ED (1969) Sustained swimming ability of larvae of walleye (Stizostidion vitreum vitreum) and yellow perch (Perca flavescens). J Fish Res Board Can 26:1647–1659CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Houde (1994) Differences between marine and freshwater fish larvae: implications for recruitment. ICES J Mar Sci 51:91–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Houde ED, Forney JL (1970) Effects of water currents on distribution of walleye larvae in Oneida Lake, New York. J Fish Res Board Can 27:445–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Houthuijzen RP, Backx JJGM, Buuse AD (1993) Exceptionally rapid growth and early maturation of perch in a freshwater lake recently converted from an estuary. J Fish Biol 43:320–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Hoxmeier RJH, Wahl DH, Hooe ML, Pierce CL (2004) Growth and survival of larval walleyes in response to prey availability. Trans Am Fish Soc 133:45–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Hoxmeier RJH, Wahl DH, Brooks RC, Heidinger RC (2006) Growth and survival of age-0 walleye (Sander vitreus): interactions among walleye size, prey availability, predation, and abiotic factors. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 63:2173–2182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Huff DD, Grad G, Williamson CE (2004) Environmental constraints on spawning depth of yellow perch: the roles of low temperature and high solar ultraviolet radiation. Trans Am Fish Soc 133:718–726CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Huh HT, Calbert HE, Stuiber DA (1976) Effects of temperature and light on growth of yellow perch and walleye using formulated feed. Trans Am Fish Soc 105:254–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Huss M, Strand BPA, Eriksson L, Persson L (2008) Influence of growth history on the accumulation of energy reserves and winter mortality in young fish. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 65:2149–2156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Huusko A, Vuorimies O, Sutela T (1996) Temperature- and light-mediated predation by perch on vendace larvae. J Fish Biol 49:441–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Hyvarinen P, Leppaniemi V, Johansson K, Korhonen P, Suuronen P (2008) Stress and survival of small pike-perch Sander lucioperca (L.) after trawling and chilling. J Fish Biol 72:2677–2688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Irwin BJ, Rudstam LG, Jackson JR, VanDeValk AJ, Forney JL, Fitzgerald DG (2009) Depensatory mortality, density-dependent growth, and delayed compensation: disentangling the interplay of mortality, growth, and density during early life stages of yellow perch. Trans Am Fish Soc 138:99–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Isermann DA, Willis DW, Lucchesi DO, Blackwell BG (2005) Seasonal harvest, exploitation, size selectivity, and catch preferences associated with winter yellow perch anglers on South Dakota lakes. N Am J Fish Manag 25:827–840CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Ivan LN, Rutherford ES, Riesing C, Tyler JA (2010) Density, production, and survival of walleye (Sander vitreus) eggs in the Muskegon River, Michigan. J Great Lakes Res 36:328–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Ivan LN, Höök TO, Thomas MV, Fielder DG (2011) Long-term and interannual dynamics of walleye and yellow perch in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron. Trans Am Fish Soc 140:1078–1092CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Jansen WA (1996) Plasticity in maturity and fecundity of yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill): comparisons of stunted and normal-growing populations. Ann Zool Fenn 33:403–415Google Scholar
  98. Jensen BB, Holopainen R, Tapiovaara H, Ariel E (2011) Susceptibility of pike-perch Sander lucioperca to a panel of ranavirus isolates. Aquaculture 313:24–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Johnson FH (1961) Walleye egg survival during incubation on several types of bottom in Lake Winnibigoshish, Minnesota, and connecting waters. Trans Am Fish Soc 90:312–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Johnson TB, Evans DO (1991) Behaviour, energetics, and associated mortality of young-of-the-year white perch (Morone americana) and yellow perch (Perca flavescens) under simulated winter conditions. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 48:672–680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Johnston TA, Leggett WC (2002) Maternal and environmental gradients in the egg size of an iteroparous fish. Ecology 83:1777–1791CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Johnston TA, Mathias JA (1994) The effects of temperature on feeding in zooplanktivorous walleye, Stizostedion vitreum, larvae. Environ Biol Fish 40:189–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Johnston TA, Lysack W, Leggett WC (2012a) Abundance, growth, and life history characteristics of sympatric walleye (Sander vitreus) and sauger (Sander Canadensis) in Lake Winnipeg, Manitoba. J Great Lakes Res 38:35–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Johnston TA, Wong DM-M, Moles MD, Wiegand MD, Casselman JM, Leggett WC (2012b) Reproductive allocation in exploited lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and walleye (Sander vitreus) populations. Fish Res 125–126:225–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Jonas JL, Wahl DH (1998) Relative importance of direct and indirect effects of starvation for young walleyes. Trans Am Fish Soc 127:192–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Jones ML, Shuter BJ, Zhao Y, Stockwell JD (2006) Forecasting effects of climate change on Great Lakes fisheries: models that link habitat supply to population dynamics can help. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 63:457–468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Kallemeyn LW (1987) Correlations of regulated lake levels and climatic factors with abundance of young-of-the-year walleye and yellow perch in four lakes in Voyageurs National Park. N Am J Fish Manag 7:513–521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Kane-Sutton M, Kinter B, Dennis PM, Koonce JF (2010) Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus infection in yellow perch, Perca flavescens, in Lake Erie. J Great Lakes Res 36:37–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Karås P, Thoresson G (1992) An application of a bioenergetics model to Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis L.). J Fish Biol 41:217–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Kershner MW, Schael DM, Knight RL, Stein RA, Marschall EA (1999) Modeling sources of variation for growth and predatory demand of Lake Erie (Stizostedion vitreum), 1986–1995. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 56:527–538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Keskinen T, Marjomäki TJ (2003) Growth of pikeperch in relation to lake characteristics: total phosphorous, water colour, lake area and depth. J Fish Biol 63:1274–1282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Keskinen T, Marjomäki TJ (2004) Diet and prey size spectrum of pikeperch in lakes in central Finland. J Fish Biol 65:1147–1153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Kitchell JF, Stewart DJ, Weininger D (1977) Applications of a bioenergetics model to yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum). J Fish Res Board Can 34:1922–1935CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Kjellman J, Lappalainen J, Urho L, Hudd R (2003) Early determination of perch and pikeperch recruitment in the northern Baltic Sea. Hydrobiologia 495:181–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Knight RL, Margraf FJ, Carline RF (1984) Piscivory by walleyes and yellow perch in western Lake Erie. Trans Am Fish Soc 113:677–693CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Kocovsky PM, Carline RF (2001) Influence of extreme temperatures on consumption and condition of walleyes in Pymatuning Sanctuary, Pennsylvania. N Am J Fish Manag 21:198–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Koenst WM, Smith LL Jr (1976) Thermal requirements of the early life history stages of walleye, Stizostedion vitreum vitreum, and sauger, Stizostedion canadense. J Fish Res Board Can 33:1130–1138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Kolar CS, Wahl DH, Hooe ML (2003) Piscivory in juvenile walleyes: relative importance of prey species, timing of spawning prey fish, and density on growth and survival. Trans Am Fish Soc 132:679–690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Koonce JF, Bagenal TB, Carline RF, Hokanson KEF, Nagięć M (1977) J Fish Res Board Can 34:1900–1909CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Kosior M, Wendzel T (2001) Comparison of fecundity of pikeperch (Stizostedion lucioperca [L.]) in three lagoons in the southern Baltic Sea. Bull Sea Fish Inst 3(154):3–28Google Scholar
  121. Lappalainen J, Dörner H, Wysujack K (2003) Reproduction biology of pikeperch (Sander lucioperca (L.)) – a review. Ecol Freshw Fish 12:95–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Lappalainen J, Malinen T, Rahikainen M, Vinni M, Nyberg K, Ruuhijärvi J, Salminen M (2005) Temperature dependent growth and yield of pikeperch, Sander lucioperca, in Finnish lakes. Fish Manag Ecol 12:27–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Latif MA, Bodally RA, Johnston TA, Fudge RJP (1999) Critical stage in developing walleye eggs. N Am J Aquacult 61:34–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Lauer TE, Shroyer SM, Kilpatrick JM, McComish TS, Allen PJ (2005) Yellow perch length-fecundity and length-egg size relationships in Indiana waters of Lake Michigan. N Am J Fish Manag 25:791–796CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Lauer TE, Doll JC, Allen PJ, Breidert B, Palla J (2008) Changes in yellow perch length frequencies and sex ratios following closure of the commercial fishery and reduction in sport bag limits in southern Lake Michigan. Fish Manag Ecol 15:39–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Lehtonen H, Hansson S, Winkler H (1996) Biology and exploitation of pikeperch, Stizostedion lucioperca (L.), in the Baltic Sea area. Ann Zool Fenn 33:525–535Google Scholar
  127. Lester NP, Shuter BJ, Kushneriuk RS, Marshall TR (2000) Life history variation in Ontario walleye populations: implications for safe rates of fishing. Percid Community Synthesis, Population and Yield Characteristics Working Group. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, PeterboroughGoogle Scholar
  128. Lester NP, Dextrase AJ, Kushneriuk RS, Lawson MR, Ryan PA (2004) Light and temperature: key factors affecting walleye abundance and production. Trans Am Fish Soc 133:588–605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Letcher BH, Rice JA, Crowder LB, Binkowski FP (1996) Size-dependent effects of continuous and intermittent feeding on starvation time and mass loss in starving yellow perch larvae and juveniles. Trans Am Fish Soc 125:14–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Litvak MK, Leggett WC (1992) Age and size-selective predation on larval fishes: the bigger-is-better hypothesis revisited. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 81:13–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Ljunggren L, Sandström A (2007) Influence of visual conditions on foraging and growth of juvenile fishes with dissimilar sensory physiology. J Fish Biol 70:1319–1334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Ljunggren L, Sandström A, Bergström U, Mattila J, Lappalainen A, Johansson G, Sundblad G, Casini M, Kaljuste O, Eriksson BK (2010) Recruitment failure of coastal predatory fish in the Baltic Sea coincident with an offshore ecosystem regime shift. ICES J Mar Sci 67:1587–1595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Lorenzen K (1996) The relationship between body weight and natural mortality in juvenile and adult fish: a comparison of natural ecosystems and aquaculture. J Fish Biol 49:627–647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Ložys L (2004) The growth of pikeperch (Sander lucioperca L.) and perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) under different water temperature and salinity conditions in the Curonian Lagoon and Lithuanian coastal waters of the Baltic Sea. Hydrobiologia 514:105–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Luchiari AC, de Morais Freire FA, Koskela J, Pirhonen J (2006) Light intensity preference of juvenile pikeperch Sander lucioperca (L.). Aquacult Res 37:1572–1577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Machiels MAM, Wijsman J (1996) Size-selective mortality in an exploited perch population and the reconstruction of potential growth. Ann Zool Fenn 33:397–401Google Scholar
  137. MacMillan EP, Roth BM (2012) By-catch in the Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron commercial trap net fishery. J Great Lakes Res 38:353–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Madenjian CP, Tyson JT, Knight RL, Kershner MW, Hansen MJ (1996) First-year growth, recruitment, and maturity of walleyes in western Lake Erie. Trans Am Fish Soc 125:821–830CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Madon SP, Culver DA (1993) Bioenergetics model for larval and juvenile walleyes: an in situ approach with experimental ponds. Trans Am Fish Soc 122:797–813CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Malison JA, Held JA (1995) Reproduction and spawning in walleye (Stizostedion vitreum). J Appl Ichthyol 12:153–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Malison JA, Procarione LS, Barry TP, Kapuscinski AR, Kayes TB (1994) Endocrine and gonadal changes during the annual reproductive cycle of the freshwater teleost, Stizostedion vitreum. Fish Physiol Biochem 13:473–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Mandiki SNM, Houbart M, Babiak I, Vandeloise E, Gardeur JN, Kestemont P (2004a) Are sex steroids involved in the sexual growth dimorphism in Eurasian perch juveniles? Physiol Behav 80:603–609CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Mandiki SNM, Blanchard G, Mélard C, Koskela J, Kucharczyk D, Fontaine P, Kestemont P (2004b) Effects of geographic origin on growth and food intake in Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) juveniles under intensive culture conditions. Aquaculture 229:117–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Marsden JE, Robillard SR (2004) Decline of yellow perch in southwestern Lake Michigan, 1987–1997. N Am J Fish Manag 24:952–966CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Marshall TR (1977) Morphological, physiological, and ethological differences between walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) and pikeperch (S. lucioperca). J Fish Res Board Can 34:1515–1523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Marshall DJ, Heppell SS, Munch SB, Warner RR (2010) The relationship between maternal phenotype and offspring quality: do older mothers really produce the best offspring? Ecology 91:2862–2873CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Martin DR, Powell LA, Pope KL (2012) Habitat selection by adult walleye during spawning season in irrigation reservoirs: a patch occupancy modeling approach. Environ Biol Fish 93:589–598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Mathias JA, Li S (1982) Feeding habits of walleye larvae and juveniles: comparative laboratory and field studies. Trans Am Fish Soc 111:722–735CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Mattila J, Koskela J, Pirhonen J (2009) The effect of the length of repeated feed deprivation between single meals on compensatory growth of pikeperch Sander lucioperca. Aquaculture 296:65–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Mehner T, Wieser W (1994) Effects of temperature on allocation of metabolic energy in perch (Perca fluviatilis) fed submaximal rations. J Fish Biol 45:1079–1086CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Mehner T, Heinz S, Bauer D, Herbst R, Voigt H, Benndorf J (1996) Intraguild predation and cannibalism in age-0 perch (Perca fluviatilis) and age-0 zander (Stizostedion lucioperca): interactions with zooplankton succession, prey fish availability and temperature. Ann Zool Fenn 33:353–361Google Scholar
  152. Mercado-Silva N, Sass GG, Roth BM, Gilbert S, Vander Zanden MJ (2007) Impact of rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) invasion on walleye (Sander vitreus) recruitment in Wisconsin lakes. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 64:1543–1550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Migaud H, Fontaine P, Sulistyo I, Kestemont P, Gardeur J-N (2002) Induction of out-of-season spawning in Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis: effects of rates of cooling and cooling durations on female gametogenesis and spawning. Aquaculture 3–4:253–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Migaud H, Fontaine P, Kestemont P, Wang N, Brun-Bellut J (2004) Influence of photoperiod on the onset of gonadogenesis in Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis. Aquaculture 241:561–574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Migaud H, Wang N, Gardeur JN, Fontaine P (2006) Influence of photoperiod on reproductive performances in Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis. Aquaculture 252:385–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Miller TJ, Crowder LB, Rice JA, Marschall EB (1988) Larval size and recruitment mechanisms in fishes: toward a conceptual framework. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 45:1657–1670CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Mills EL, Sherman R, Robson DS (1989) Effect of zooplankton abundance and body size on growth of age-0 yellow perch (Perca flavescens) in Oneida Lake, New York, 1975–1986. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 46:880–886CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Moles MD, Johnston TA, Robinson BW, Leggett WC, Casselman JM (2008) Is gonadal investment in walleye (Sander vitreus) dependent on body lipid reserves? A multipopulation comparative analysis. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 65:600–614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Moodie GEE, Loadman NL, Wiegand MD, Mathias JA (1989) Influence of egg characteristics on survival, growth, and feeding in larval walleye (Stizostedion vitreum). Can J Fish Aquat Sci 46:516–521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Mooij WM, Van Rooij JM, Wijnhoven S (1999) Analysis and comparison of fish growth from small samples of length-at-age data: detection of sexual dimorphism in Eurasian perch as an example. Trans Am Fish Soc 128:483–490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Muntyan SP (1977) Effect of constant incubation temperatures on hatching and the morphological characteristics of pike-perch embryos. In: Metabolism and biochemistry of fishes. Nauka Press, Moscow, pp 214–221Google Scholar
  162. Muth KM, Ickes BS (1993) Fecundity of walleyes in western Lake Erie, 1966 and 1990–91. J Great Lakes Res 19:715–719CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Muth KM, Wolfert DR (1986) Changes in growth and maturity of walleyes associated with stock rehabilitation in western Lake Erie, 1964–1983. N Am J Fish Manag 6:1968–1983CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Myers RA (1998) When do environment – recruitment correlations work? Rev Fish Biol Fish 8:285–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Newsome GE, Tompkins J (1985) Yellow perch egg masses deter predators. Can J Zool 63:2882–2884CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Nielsen LA (1980) Effect of walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) predation on juvenile mortality and recruitment of yellow perch (Perca flavescens) in Oneida Lake, New York. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 37:11–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Nyberg P, Bergstand E, Degerman E, Enderlein O (2001) Recruitment of pelagic fish in an unstable climate: studies of Sweden’s four largest lakes. Ambio 30:559–564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Olin M, Jutila J, Lehtonen H, Vinni M, Ruuhijärvi J, Estlander S, Rask M, Kuparinen A, Lappalainen J (2012) Importance of maternal size on the reproductive success of perch, Perca fluviatilis, in small forest lakes: implications for fisheries management. Fish Manag Ecol 19:363–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Oseid DM, Smith LL Jr (1971) Survival and hatching of walleye eggs at various dissolved oxygen levels. Progress Fish Cult 33:81–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Paradis Y, Bertolo A, Perot A, Débas S, Magnan P (2006) Do benthivory and piscivory result in similar growth in walleye? J Fish Biol 69:1317–1329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Paukert CP, Willis DW (2001) Comparison of exploited and unexploited yellow perch Perca flavescens (Mitchill) populations in Nebraska Sandhill lakes. Fish Manag Ecol 8:533–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Pauly D (1980) On the interrelationships between natural mortality, growth parameters, and mean environmental temperature in 175 fish stocks. J Cons Int Explor Mer 39:175–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Paxton CGM, Winfield IJ, Fletcher JM, George DG, Hewitt DP (2004) Biotic and abiotic influences on the recruitment of male perch in Windmere, U.K. J Fish Biol 65:1622–1642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Pedicillo G, Merulli F, Carosi A, Viali P, Lorenzoni M (2008) The use of artificial spawning substrates as media to support the reproduction of Eurasian perch in Lake Piediluco. Hydrobiologia 609:219–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Persson A, Brönmark C (2002) Foraging capacity and resource synchronization in an ontogenetic diet switcher, pikeperch (Stizostedion lucioperca). Ecology 83:3014–3022CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Peterka J, Matěna J, Lipka J (2002) The diet and growth of larval and juvenile pikeperch (Stizostedion lucioperca (L.)): a comparative study of fishponds and a reservoir. Aquac Int 11:337–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Petrosky BR, Magnuson JJ (1973) Behavioral responses of northern pike, yellow perch and bluegill to oxygen concentrations under simulated winterkill conditions. Copeia 1973:124–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Pitlo J Jr (2002) Effects of environmental factors on walleye and sauger recruitment in Pool 13, Upper Mississippi River. N Am J Fish Manag 22:1021–1031CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Pope KL, Willis DW, Lucchesi DO (1996) Differential relations of age-0 black crappie and yellow perch to climatological variables in a natural lake. J Freshw Ecol 11:345–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Post JR, Evans DO (1989) Size-dependent overwinter mortality of young-of-the-year yellow perch (Perca flavescens): laboratory, in situ enclosure, and field experiments. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 46:1958–1968CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Post JR, Johannes MRS, McQueen DJ (1997) Evidence of density-dependent cohort splitting in age-0 yellow perch, (Perca flavescens): potential behavioural mechanisms and population-level consequences. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 54:867–875CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Post JR, Sullivan M, Cox S, Lester NP, Walters CJ, Parkinson EA, Paul AJ, Jackson L, Shuter BJ (2002) Canada’s recreational fisheries: the invisible collapse? Fisheries 27(1):6–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Pothoven SA, Höök TO, Roswell CR (2014) Energy content of young yellow perch and walleye in Saginaw Bay. J Great Lakes Res 40(Suppl 1):133–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Power M, Van Den Heuvel MR (1999) Age-0 yellow perch growth and its relationship to temperature. Trans Am Fish Soc 128:687–700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Pratt TC, Fox MG (2002) Influence of predation risk on the overwinter mortality and energetic relationships of young-of-year walleyes. Trans Am Fish Soc 131:885–898CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Purchase CF, Collins NC, Shuter BJ (2005) Sensitivity of maximum sustainable harvest rates to intra-specific life history variability of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and walleye (Sander vitreus). Fish Res 72:141–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Pycha RL, Smith LL Jr (1955) Early life history of the yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchell), in the Red Lakes, Minnesota. Trans Am Fish Soc 84:249–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Quevedo M, Svanbäck R, Eklöv P (2009) Intrapopulation niche partitioning in a generalist predator limits food web connectivity. Ecology 90:2263–2274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Quist MC, Guy CS, Bernot RJ, Stephen JL (2002) Seasonal variation in condition, growth and food habits of walleye in a Great Plains reservoir and simulated effects of an altered thermal regime. J Fish Biol 61:1329–1344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Quist MC, Guy CS, Schultz RD, Stephen JL (2003a) Latitudinal comparisons of walleye growth in North America and factors influencing growth of walleyes in Kansas reservoirs. N Am J Fish Manag 23:677–692CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Quist MC, Guy CS, Stephen JL (2003b) Recruitment dynamics of walleyes (Stizostedion vitreum) in Kansas reservoirs: generalities with natural systems and effects of a centrarchid predator. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 60:830–839CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Quist MC, Guy CS, Bernot RJ, Stephen JL (2004) Factors related to growth and survival of larval walleyes: implications for recruitment in a southern Great Plains reservoir. Fish Res 67:215–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Raabe JK, Bozek MA (2012) Quantity, structure, and habitat selection of natural spawning reefs by walleyes in a north temperate lake: a multiscale analysis. Trans Am Fish Soc 141:1097–1108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Radke RJ, Gaupisch A (2005) Effects of phytoplankton-induced turbidity on predation success of piscivorous Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis): possible implications for fish community structure in lakes. Naturwissenschaften 92:91–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Raikova-Petrova G, Živkov M (1998) Maturity, spawning and sex ratio of pike perch, Stizostedion lucioperca (L.), in two Bulgarian reservoirs as compared to other European habitats. J Appl Ichthyol 14:31–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Redman RA, Czesny SJ, Dettmers JM, Weber MJ, Makauskas D (2011) Old tales in a recent context: current perspective on yellow perch recruitment in Lake Michigan. Trans Am Fish Soc 140:1277–1289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Reichert JM, Fryer BJ, Pangle KL, Johnson TB, Tyson JT, Drelich AB, Ludsin SA (2010) River-plume use during the pelagic larval stage benefits recruitment of a lentic fish. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 67:987–1004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Rennert B, Wirth M, Günther S, Shulz C (2005) Effect of feeding under-year zander (Sander lucioperca) on size, body mass and body composition before and after wintering. J Appl Ichthyol 21:429–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Rennie MD, Purchase CF, Shuter BJ, Collins NC, Abrams PA, Morgan GE (2010) Prey life-history and bioenergetics responses across a predation gradient. J Fish Biol 77:1230–1251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Reyes MRD, Arzbach H-H, Braum E (1992) In situ development of perch eggs, Perca fluviatilis L. (Pisces, Percidae) in a small eutrophic lake, Lake Plusee, Holstein, Germany. Int Rev Gesamten Hydrobiol Hydrogr 77:467–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Rinchard J, Ware K, Dabrowski K, Van Tassell JJ, Marschall EA, Stein RA (2011) Egg thiamine concentration affects embryo survival in Lake Erie walleye. Environ Biol Fish 90:53–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Ritchie BJ, Colby PJ (1988) Even-odd year differences in walleye year-class strength related to mayfly production. N Am J Fish Manag 8:210–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Robb T, Abrahams MV (2003) Variation in tolerance to hypoxia in a predator and prey species: an ecological advantage of being small? J Fish Biol 62:1067–1081CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Roberts JJ, Höök TO, Ludsin SA, Pothoven SA, Vanderploeg HA, Brandt SB (2009) Effects of hypolimnetic hypoxia on foraging and distributions of Lake Erie yellow perch. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 381:S132–S142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Roberts JJ, Brandt SB, Fanslow D, Ludsin SA, Pothoven SA, Scavia D, Höök TO (2011) Effects of hypoxia on consumption, growth, and RNA:DNA ratios of young yellow perch. Trans Am Fish Soc 40:1574–1586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Roberts JJ, Grecay PA, Ludsin SA, Pothoven SA, Vanderploeg HA, Höök TO (2012) Evidence of hypoxic foraging forays by yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and potential consequences for prey consumption. Freshw Biol 57:922–937CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Robillard SE, Marsden JE (2001) Spawning substrate preferences of yellow perch in Lake Michigan. N Am J Fish Manage 21:208–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Roff DA, Heibo E, Vøllestad LA (2006) The importance of growth and mortality costs in the evolution of the optimal life history. J Evol Biol 19:1920–1930CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Rónyai A, Csengeri I (2008) Effect of feeding regime and temperature on growing results of pikeperch (Sander lucioperca L.). Aquacult Res 39:820–827CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Rose K, Rutherford ES, McDermot DS, Forney JL, Mills EL (1999) Individual-based model of yellow perch and walleye populations in Oneida Lake. Ecol Monogr 69:127–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Roseman EF, Taylor WW, Hayes DB, Haas RC, Knight RL, Paxton KO (1996) Walleye egg deposition and survival on reefs in western Lake Erie (USA). Ann Zool Fenn 33:341–351Google Scholar
  212. Roseman EF, Taylor WW, Hayes DB, Knight RL, Haas RC (2001) Removal of walleye eggs from reefs in western Lake Erie by a catastrophic storm. Trans Am Fish Soc 130:341–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Roseman EF, Taylor WW, Hayes DB, Tyson JT, Haas RC (2005) Spatial patterns emphasize the importance of coastal zones as nursery areas for larval walleye in western Lake Erie. J Great Lakes Res 31(Suppl 1):28–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Roswell CR (2011) Growth, condition, and diets of age-0 Saginaw Bay yellow perch, implications for recruitment. MS thesis, Purdue University, West LafayetteGoogle Scholar
  215. Roswell CR, Pothoven SA, Höök TO (2013) Spatio-temporal, ontogenetic and interindividual variation of age-0 diets in a population of yellow perch. Ecol Freshw Fish 22:479–493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Roswell CR, Pothoven SA, Höök TO (2014) Patterns of age-0 yellow perch growth, diets, and mortality in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron. J Great Lakes Res 40(Suppl 1):123–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Rudstam LG, VanDeValk AJ, Adams CM, Coleman JTH, Forney JL, Richmond ME (2004) Cormorant predation and the population dynamics of walleye and yellow perch in Oneida Lake. Ecol Appl 14:149–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Sandström O, Neuman E, Thoresson G (1995) Effects of temperature on life history variables in perch. J Fish Biol 47:652–670CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Sandström O, Abrahamsson I, Andersson J, Vetemaa M (1997) Temperature effects on spawning and egg development in Eurasian perch. J Fish Biol 51:1015–1024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Sarvala J, Helminen H (1996) Year-class fluctuations of perch (Perca fluviatilis) in Lake Pyhäjärvi, Southwest Finland. Ann Zool Fenn 33:389–396Google Scholar
  221. Schaeffer JS, Diana JS, Haas RC (2000) Effects of long-term changes in the benthic community on yellow perch in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron. J Great Lakes Res 26:340–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Scherer E (1971) Effects of oxygen depletion and of carbon dioxide buildup on the photic behavior of the walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum). J Fish Res Board Can 28:1303–1307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Schlumberger O, Proteau J-P (1996) Reproduction of pike-perch (Stizostedion lucioperca) in captivity. J Appl Ichthyol 12:149–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Schneider JC, Copeland J, Wolgamood M (2002) Tolerance of incubating walleye eggs to temperature fluctuation. N Am J Aquac 64:75–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Schueller AM, Hansen MJ, Newman SP, Edwards CJ (2005) Density dependence of walleye maturity and fecundity in Big Crooked Lake, Wisconsin, 1997–2003. N Am J Fish Manag 25:841–847CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Schumann GO (1963) Artificial light to attract young perch: a new method of augmenting the food supply of predaceous fish fry in hatcheries. Prog Fish Cult 25:171–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Schupp DH (2002) What does Mt. Pinatubo have to do with walleyes? N Am J Fish Manag 22:1014–1020CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Scott WB, Crossman EJ (1973) Freshwater fishes of Canada. Fish Res Board Can Bull 184:1–966Google Scholar
  229. Serns SL (1982) Walleye fecundity, potential egg deposition, and survival from egg to fall young-of-year in Escanaba Lake, Wisconsin, 1979–1981. N Am J Fish Manag 2:388–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Sharpe DMT, Hendry AP (2009) Life history change in commercially exploited fish stocks: an analysis of trends across studies. Evol Appl 2:260–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Sherwood GD, Pazzia I, Moeser A, Hontela A, Rasmussen JB (2002) Shifting gears: enzymatic evidence for the energetic advantage of switching diet in wild-living fish. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 59:229–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Shewmon LN, Godwin JR, Murashige RS, Daniels HV, Losordo TM (2007) Environmental manipulation of growth and sexual maturation in yellow perch, Perca flavescens. J World Aquac Soc 38:383–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Shuter BJ, Post JR (1990) Climate, population viability, and the zoogeography of temperate fishes. Trans Am Fish Soc 119:314–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Specziár A (2005) First year ontogenetic diet patterns in two coexisting Sander species, S. lucioperca and S. volgensis in Lake Balaton. Hydrobiologia 549:115–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Specziár A, Bíró P (2003) Population structure and feeding characteristics of Volga pikeperch Sander volgensis (Pisces, Percidae), in Lake Balaton. Hydrobiologia 506–509:503–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Stepien CA, Banda JA, Murphy DM, Haponski AE (2012) Temporal and spatial genetic consistency of walleye spawning groups. Trans Am Fish Soc 141:660–672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Strand Å, Magnhagen C, Alanärä A (2011) Growth and energy expenditures of Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis (Linneaus) in different temperatures and of different body sizes. J Aquac Res Dev 2:114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Suthers IM, Gee JH (1986) Role of hypoxia in limiting diel spring and summer distribution of juvenile yellow perch (Perca flavescens) in a prairie marsh. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 43:1562–1570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Svanbäck R, Eklöv P (2001) Effects of habitat and food resources on morphology and ontogenetic growth trajectories in perch. Oecologia 131:61–70Google Scholar
  240. Svanbäck R, Eklöv P (2006) Genetic variation and phenotypic plasticity: causes of morphological and dietary variation in Eurasian perch. Evol Ecol Res 8:37–49Google Scholar
  241. Szalai AJ, Dick TA (1991) Role of predation and parasitism in growth and mortality of yellow perch in Dauphin Lake, Manitoba. Trans Am Fish Soc 120:739–751CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Tamazouzt L, Chatain B, Fontaine P (2000) Tank wall colour and light level affect growth and survival of Eurasian perch larvae (Perca fluviatilis L.). Aquaculture 182:85–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. Thorpe JE (1977) Morphology, physiology, behavior, and ecology of Perca fluviatilis L. and P. flavescens Mitchill. J Fish Res Board Can 34:1504–1514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Tidwell JH, Coyle SD, Evans J, Weibel C, McKinney J, Dodson K, Jones H (1999) Effect of culture temperature on growth, survival, and biochemical composition of yellow perch Perca flavescens. J World Aquac Soc 30:324–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Tolonen A, Lappalainen J, Pulliainen E (2003) Seasonal and year class strength variations of perch near the northern limits of its distribution range. J Fish Biol 63:176–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Treasurer JW (1983) Estimates of egg and viable embryo production in a lacustrine perch, Perca fluviatilis. Environ Biol Fish 8:3–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. Turesson H, Persson A, Brönmark C (2002) Prey size selection in piscivorous pikeperch (Stizostedion lucioperca) includes active prey choice. Ecol Freshw Fish 11:223–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. Tyson JT, Knight RL (2001) Response of yellow perch to changes in the benthic invertebrate community of western Lake Erie. Trans Am Fish Soc 130:766–782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. Vainikka A, Koskimäki J, Niemela PT, Kortet R (2012) Composition of the Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) catches in ice fishing: does capture order predict body size? Fish Res 115–116:24–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. van Densen WLT, Ligtvoet W, Roozen RWM (1996) Intra-cohort variation in the individual size of juvenile pikeperch, Stizostedion lucioperca, and perch, Perca fluviatilis, in relation to the size spectrum of their food items. Ann Zool Fenn 33:495–506Google Scholar
  251. Vandenbyllaardt L, Ward FJ, Braekevelt CR, McIntyre DB (1991) Relationships between turbidity, piscivory, and development of the retina in juvenile walleyes. Trans Am Fish Soc 120:382–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. VanDeValk AJ, Adams CM, Rudstam LG, Forney JL, Brooking TE, Gerken MA, Young BP, Hooper JT (2002) Comparison of angler and cormorant harvest of walleye and yellow perch in Oneida Lake, New York. Trans Am Fish Soc 131:27–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. Venturelli PA, Shuter BJ, Murphy CA (2009) Evidence for harvest-induced maternal influences on the reproductive rates of fish populations. Proc R Soc B 276:919–924CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. Venturelli PA, Lester NP, Marshall TR, Shuter BJ (2010a) Consistent patterns of maturity and density-dependent growth among populations of walleye (Sander vitreus): application of the growing degree-day metric. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 67:1057–1067CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. Venturelli PA, Murphy CA, Shuter BJ, Johnston TA, Boag PT, Casselman JM, Montgomerie R, Wiegand MD, Leggett WC (2010b) Maternal influences on population dynamics: evidence from an exploited freshwater fish. Ecology 91:2003–2012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. Vinni M, Lappalainen J, Malinen T, Lehtonen H (2009) Stunted growth of pikeperch Sander lucioperca in Lake Sahajärvi, Finland. J Fish Biol 74:967–972CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. Wang N, Appenzeller A (2006) Abundance, depth distribution, diet composition and growth of perch (Perca fluviatilis) and burbot (Lota lota) larvae and juveniles in the pelagic of Lake Constance. Ecol Freshw Fish 7:176–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. Wang N, Eckmann R (1994) Effects of temperature and food density on egg development, larval survival and growth of perch (Perca fluviatilis L.). Aquaculture 122:323–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. Wang N, Gardeur J-N, Henrotte E, Marie M, Kestemont P, Fontaine P (2006) Determinism of the induction of the reproductive cycle in female Eurasian perch, Perca fluviatilis: identification of environmental cues and permissive factors. Aquaculture 261:706–714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. Wang H-Y, Höök TO, Ebener MP, Mohr LC, Schneeberger PJ (2008) Spatial and temporal variation of maturation schedules of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in the Great Lakes. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 65:2157–2169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. Wang H-P, Li L, Wallat G, Brown B, Yao H, Gao Z, Tiu L, O’Bryant P, Rapp D, MacDonald R (2009a) Evaluation of relative growth performance and genotype by environment effects for cross-bred yellow perch families reared in communal ponds using DNA parentage analyses. Aquacult Res 40:1363–1373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. Wang H-Y, Cook HA, Einhouse DW, Fielder DG, Kayle KA, Rudstam LG, Höök TO (2009b) Maturation schedules in the Great Lakes region: comparison of maturation indices and evaluation of sampling-induced biases. N Am J Fish Manag 29:1540–1554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. Wang N, Xu X, Kestemont P (2009c) Effect of temperature and feeding frequency on growth performances, feed efficiency and body composition of pikeperch juveniles (Sander lucioperca). Aquaculture 289:70–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. Wang H-Y, Einhouse DW, Fielder DG, Rudstam LG, Vandergoot C, VanDeValk AJ, Zorn T, Höök TO (2012) Maternal and stock effects on egg-size variation among walleye Sander vitreus stocks from the Great Lakes region. J Great Lakes Res 38:477–489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. Weber MJ, Dettmers JM, Wahl DH (2011) Growth and survival of age-0 yellow perch across habitats in southwestern Lake Michigan: early life history in a large freshwater environment. Trans Am Fish Soc 140:1172–1185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. Wellington CG, Mayer CM, Bossenbroek JM, Stroh NA (2010) Effects of turbidity and prey density on the foraging success of age 0 year yellow perch Perca flavescens. J Fish Biol 76:1729–1741CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. Wiegand MD, Johnston TA, Martin J, Leggett WC (2004) Variation in neutral and polar lipid compositions of ova in ten reproductively isolated populations of walleye (Sander vitreus). Can J Fish Aquat Sci 61:110–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. Wiegand MD, Johnston TA, Leggett WC, Watchorn KE, Ballevona AJ, Porteous LR, Casselman JM (2007) Contrasting strategies of ova lipid provisioning in relation to maternal characteristics in three walleye (Sander vitreus) populations. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 64:700–712CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. Williamson CE, Metgar SL, Lovera PA, Moeller RE (1997) Solar ultraviolet radiation and the spawning habitat of yellow perch, Perca flavescens. Ecol Appl 7:1017–1023CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. Winemiller KO, Rose KA (1992) Patterns of life-history diversification in North American fishes: implications for population regulation. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 49:2196–2218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. Withers J (2012) Potential invasive species impacts on prey availability and foraging by larval yellow perch and alewife in the near-shore zone of southeastern Lake Michigan. MS thesis, Purdue University, West LafayetteGoogle Scholar
  272. Wolfert DR (1969) Maturity and fecundity of walleye from the eastern and western basins of Lake Erie. J Fish Res Board Can 26:1877–1888CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. Wysujack K, Kasprzak P, Laude U, Mehner T (2002) Management of a pikeperch stock in a long-term biomanipulated stratified lake: efficient predation vs. low recruitment. Hydrobiologia 479:169–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. Zhao Y, Schuter BJ, Jackson DA (2007) Life history variation parallels phylogeographics patterns in North American walleye (Sander vitreus) populations. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 65:198–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. Zhao Y, Jones ML, Shuter BJ, Roseman EF (2009) A biophysical model of Lake Erie walleye (Sander vitreus) explains interannual variations in recruitment. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 66:114–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. Zingel P, Paaver T (2010) Effects of turbidity on feeding of the young-of-the-year pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) in fishponds. Aquacult Res 41:89–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, Illinois-Indiana Sea GrantPurdue UniversityWest LafayetteUSA

Personalised recommendations