Advertisement

Intensive Culture of Walleye from Egg Incubation to Juvenile

  • Robert C. Summerfelt
  • J. Alan Johnson

Abstract

This chapter describes early life stages and reviews intensive larviculture of Walleye (Sander vitreus) from hatch to 35 days posthatch (dph). Embryonic development, egg incubation and chemotherapy for eggs, as well as details of gas bladder inflation and methodology to overcome non-inflation of the gas bladder (NGB) are illustrated with photographs from microvideography and artwork. Husbandry includes description of stocking density, as well as environmental features (light, tank color, turbid water, surface spray, and tank hygiene) needed to overcome the problem of clinging behavior and NGB. Consideration is given to use of live and manufactured feeds as well as feeding rate and frequency. The problem of deformities as well as occurrence and treatment of disease and are given appropriate attention. The chapter demonstrates a science-based, production-scale protocol for Walleye fry culture that can achieve 60–70 % survival from hatch to 35 days post hatch (dph). The chapter supports the viewpoint that intensive larviculture offers a practical alternative to pond-culture for production of feed-trained juvenile Walleyes.

Keywords

Walleye Incubation Larviculture Husbandry Juveniles 

References

  1. Allbaugh CA, Manz JV (1964) Preliminary study of the effects of temperature fluctuations on developing walleye eggs and fry. Prog Fish Cult 26:175–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bainbridge R (1958) The speed of swimming fish as related to size and to the frequency and amplitude of the tail beat. J Exp Biol 35:109–133Google Scholar
  3. Barrows FT, Lellis WA, Nickum JG (1988) Intensive culture of larval walleye with dry or formulated feed: note on swim bladder inflation. Prog Fish Cult 50:160–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barrows FT, Zitzow RE, Kindschi GA (1993) Effects of surface water spray, diet, and phase feeding on swim bladder inflation, survival, and cost of production of intensively reared larval walleyes. Prog Fish Cult 55:224–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barton BA (ed) (2011) Biology, management, and culture of walleye and sauger. American Fisheries Society, BethesdaGoogle Scholar
  6. Boggs CT (1994) Origin and characterization of oil films from larval walleye culture tanks. MS thesis, Iowa State University, AmesGoogle Scholar
  7. Bristow BT (1993) Comparison of larval walleye stocks in intensive culture. Master’s thesis, Iowa State University, AmesGoogle Scholar
  8. Bristow BT (1996) The extensive–intensive production of advanced fingerling walleyes at the Spirit Lake State Fish Hatchery. In: Summerfelt RC (ed) Walleye culture manual. NCRAC Culture Series 101, North Central Regional Aquaculture Center Publications Office. Iowa State University, Ames, pp 209–212Google Scholar
  9. Bristow BT, Summerfelt RC (1994) Performance of larval walleye cultured intensively in clear and turbid water. J World Aquac Soc 25:454–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bristow BT, Summerfelt RC (2003) Variation among stocks of walleye (Sander vitreus): length at hatch, and larval development. In: Barry TP, Malison JA (eds) Proceedings of Percis III: the third international Percid fish symposium. University of Wisconsin Sea Grant Institute, Madison, pp 21–22Google Scholar
  11. Bristow BT, Summerfelt RC (1996) Comparative performance of intensively cultured larval walleye in clear, turbid, and colored water. Prog Fish Cult 58:1–10Google Scholar
  12. Cahu C, Infante J, Takeuchi T (2003) Nutritional components affecting skeletal development in fish larvae. Aquaculture 227:254–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Change EY-Y, Liao IC (2003) Sibling cannibalism of young red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus, in relation to size disparity and metabolic rates. Environ Biol Fish 68:407–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chatain B (1994) Abnormal swim bladder development and lordosis in sea bass (Dicentarchus labrax) and sea bream (Sparus auratus). Aquaculture 119:371–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chatain B, Qunais-Guschemann N (1990) Improved rate of initial gas bladder inflation in intensively reared Sparus auratus. Aquaculture 84:345–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Clayton RD, Summerfelt RC (2010) Gas bladder inflation in walleye fry cultured in turbid water with and without a surface spray. N Am J Aquac 72:338–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Clayton RD, Summerfelt RC (2011) A standpipe screen design to prevent fry loss during tank cleaning. N Am J Aquac 73:104–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Colesante RT (1996) Intensive culture of walleye using brine shrimp and formulated diets. In: Summerfelt RC (ed) Walleye culture manual, vol 101, NCRAC culture series. North Central Regional Aquaculture Center Publications Office, Iowa State University, Ames, pp 191–194Google Scholar
  19. Copeland JA, Wolgamood MW (1996) Walleye spawning in Michigan. In: Summerfelt RC (ed) Walleye culture manual, vol 101, NCRAC culture series. North Central Regional Aquaculture Center Publications Office, Iowa State University, Ames, pp 21–23Google Scholar
  20. Czesny S, Rinchard J, Dabrowski K (2005) Intrapopulation variation in egg lipid and fatty acid composition and embryo viability in a naturally spawning walleye population from an inland reservoir. N Am J Fish Manag 25:122–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dabrowski K, Ware K, Jaroszewska M, Kwasek K (2009) Evaluation of walleye embryo survival and larval viability after iodine treatment. N Am J Aquac 71:122–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. FDACMV (Federal Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine) (2013) Approved drugs for use in aquaculture. Available: http://www.fda.gov/AnimalVeterinary/DevelopmentApprovalProcess/Aquaculture/ucm132954.htm. Jan 2013
  23. Gallinat MP (1996) Stripping walleye eggs collected from speared fish and incubation of eggs using Big Redd incubators. In: Summerfelt RC (ed) Walleye culture manual, vol 101, NCRAC culture series. North Central Regional Aquaculture Center Publications Office, Iowa State University, Ames, pp 37–40Google Scholar
  24. Getchell, R. 2007. Egg disinfection may keep viruses at bay. Fish Farming News 2007(4):8–9Google Scholar
  25. Glenn CL, Mathias JA (1985) Circuli development on body scales of young pond-reared walleye (Stizostedion vitreum). Can J Zool 63:912–915CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Greiff E (1996) Stripping, fertilizing, and incubating walleye eggs with Big Redd incubators. In: Summerfelt RC (ed) Walleye culture manual, vol 101, NCRAC culture series. North Central Regional Aquaculture Center Publications Office, Iowa State University, Ames, pp 31–36Google Scholar
  27. Groocock GH, Getchell RG, Cornwell ER, Frattinii SA, Wooster GH, Bowser PR, LaPan SR (2012) Iodophor disinfection of walleye eggs exposed to viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus Type IVb. North Am J Aquacult 75:25–33Google Scholar
  28. Harvey JE, Hood SE (1996) Collection and spawning of walleye broodfish and incubation of fertilized eggs. In: Summerfelt RC (ed) Walleye culture manual, vol 101, NCRAC culture series. North Central Regional Aquaculture Center Publications Office, Iowa State University, Ames, pp 25–28Google Scholar
  29. Heidinger RC, Brooks RC, Leitner D, Soderstrom I (1997) Prediction of walleye egg and embryo survival at two stages of development. Progress Fish Cult 59:64–67Google Scholar
  30. Hubbs CL (1943) Terminology of early stages of fishes. Copeia 1943:260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hussain M, Summerfelt RC (1991) The role of mechanical injury in an experimental transmission of Flexibacter columnaris to fingerling walleye. J Iowa Acad Sci 98:93–98Google Scholar
  32. INAD AADA (2011) Fact sheet: diquat INAD 10-969. Aquatic Animal Drug Approval Partnership (AADP) Program. http://www.fws.gov/fisheries/aadap/diquat.htm. Accessed June 2015
  33. Johnson JA, Rudacille JB (2010) Intensive culture of walleye converted to a dry diet as small fingerlings. Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Federal Aid in Sport Fish Restoration, Completion report, project F-160-R, Des MoinesGoogle Scholar
  34. Johnson JA, Summerfelt RC, Clayton RD (2008) Evaluation of replacement feeds for Fry Feed Kyowa for larval walleyes. N Am J Aquac 70:445–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kindschi GA, Barrows FT (1991) Optimal screen mesh size for restraining walleye fry. Prog Fish Cult 53:53–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kitajima C, Tsukashima Y, Fujita S, Watanable T, Yone Y (1981) Relationship between uninflated swim bladders and lorodic deformity in hatchery-reared red sea bream Pagurus major. Bull Jpn Soc Sci Fish 47:1289–1294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kitajima C, Watanabe T, Tsukashima Y, Fujita S (1991) Lordotic deformation and abnormal development of swim bladder in some hatchery-bred marine physoclistious fishes. In: Lavens P, Sorgeloos P, Jaspers PE, Ollevier FP (eds) LARVI ‘91 – fish & crustacean larviculture symposium. European Aquaculture Society, Special Publication, no 15, Gent, p 316Google Scholar
  38. Latif MA, Bodaly RA, Johnston TA, Fudge RJP (1999) Critical stage in developing walleye eggs. N Am J Aquac 61:34–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Latif MA, Bodaly RA, Johnston TA, Fudge RJP (2001) Effects of environmental and maternally derived methylmercury on the embryonic and larval stages of walleye (Stizostedion vitreum). Environ Pollut 111:139–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lavigne M, Lucotte M, Paquet S (2010) Relationship between mercury concentration and growth rates for walleyes, northern pike, and lake trout from Quebec lakes. N Am J Fish Manag 30:1221–1237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Li S, Mathias JA (1982) Causes of high mortality among cultured larval walleyes. Trans Am Fish Soc 111:710–721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lim LC (1993) Larviculture of the greasy grouper, Epinephelus tauvina and the brown-marbled grouper, E fuscoguttatus in Singapore. J World Aquac Soc 24:262–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Loadman NL, Moodie GEE, Mathias JA (1986) Significance of cannibalism in larval walleye (Stizostedion vitreum). Can J Fish Aquat Sci 43:613–618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Marty GD, Hinton DE, Summerfelt RC (1995) Histopathology of swimbladder noninflation in walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) larvae: role of development and inflammation. Aquaculture 138:35–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. McElman JF, Balon EK (1979) Early ontogeny of walleye, Stizostedion vitreum, with steps of saltatory development. Environ Biol Fish 4:300–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Moodie GEE, Mathias JA (1996) Intensive culture of larval walleye on formulated food. In: Summerfelt RC (ed) Walleye culture manual, vol 101, NCRAC culture series. North Central Regional Aquaculture Center Publications Office, Iowa State University, Ames, pp 187–190Google Scholar
  47. Moore A, Prange MA, Summerfelt RC, Bushman RP (1994a) Evaluation of tank shape and a surface spray for rearing larval walleye on formulated feed. Prog Fish Cult 56:100–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Moore A, Prange MA, Bristow BT, Summerfelt RC (1994b) Influence of stocking densities on walleye fry viability in experimental and production tanks. Prog Fish Cult 56:194–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Nelson WR (1968) Embryo and larval characteristics of sauger, walleye, and their reciprocal hybrids. Trans Am Fish Soc 97:167–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Nelson WR, Hines NR, Beckman LG (1965) Artificial propagation of saugers and hybridization with walleyes. Prog Fish Cult 27:216–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Paddock D (1996) Incubation of walleye eggs at Garrison Dam National Fish Hatchery. In: Summerfelt RC (ed) Walleye culture manual, vol 101, NCRAC culture series. North Central Regional Aquaculture Center Publications Office, Iowa State University, Ames, pp 29–30Google Scholar
  52. Peterson RH, Harmon P (2001) Swimming ability of pre-feeding striped bass larvae. Aquac Int 9:361–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Peterson DL, Carline RF, Wilson TA, Hendricks ML (1997) Production-scale methods for intensive culture of walleye fry. Prog Fish Cult 59:14–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Phelps NBD, Patnayak DP, Jiang Y, Goyal SM (2012) The use of a one-step real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) for the surveillance of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) in Minnesota. J Aquat Anim Health 24:238–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Phillips TA, Summerfelt RC (1999) Gill development in larval walleye. Trans Am Fish Soc 128:162–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Phillips TA, Summerfelt RC (2003) An estimate of optimal turbidity to maximize survival and growth rate of larval walleye in intensive culture. In: Barry TP, Malison JA (eds) Proceedings of Percis III: the third international Percid fish symposium. University Wisconsin Sea Grant Instititue, Madison, pp 51–52Google Scholar
  57. Rieger PW, Summerfelt RC (1997) The influence of turbidity on larval walleye, Stizostedion vitreum, behavior and development in tank culture. Aquaculture 159:19–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Rieger PW, Summerfelt RC (1998) Microvideography of gas bladder inflation in larval walleye. J Fish Biol 53:93–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Rønfeldt JL, Nielsen JW (2010) Effect of turbidity on rearing of pikeperch larvae (Sander lucioperca L.). In: Biologispeciale udarbejdet, Detnaturvidenskabelige Fakultet Københavns Universitet, pp 19–27Google Scholar
  60. Schneider JC, Copeland J, Wolgamood M (2002) Tolerance of incubating walleye eggs to temperature fluctuations. N Am J Aquac 64:75–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Schneider KN, Newman RM, Card V, Weisberg S, Pereira DL (2010) Timing of walleye spawning as an indicator of climate change. Trans Am Fish Soc 139:1198–1210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Smith LL Jr, Koenst WM (1975) Temperature effects on eggs and fry of percoid fishes. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Ecol Res Ser EPA-660/3–75–017Google Scholar
  63. Summerfelt RC (2013) Gas bladder inflation in larval fish aquaculture. In: Qin JG (ed) Larval fish aquaculture. Nova Science, Hauppauge, pp 125–142Google Scholar
  64. Summerfelt RC, Johnson JA, Clouse CP (2011) Culture of walleye, sauger, and hybrid walleye. In: Barton B (ed) Biology, management, and culture of walleye, sauger, and hybrid walleye. American Fisheries Society Special Publication, Bethesda, pp 451–570Google Scholar
  65. Takeda T (1990) Ventilation, cardiac output and blood respiratory parameters in the carp, Cyprinus carpio, during hyperoxia. Respir Physiol 81:227–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Thompson D (1996) Stripping, fertilizing, and incubating walleye eggs at a Minnesota hatchery. In: Summerfelt RC (ed) Walleye culture manual, vol 101, NCRAC culture series. North Central Regional Aquaculture Center Publications Office, Iowa State University, Ames, pp 41–44Google Scholar
  67. Tuttle-Lau MT, KA Phillips, Gaikowski MP (2010) Evaluation of the efficacy of iodophor disinfection of walleye and northern pike eggs to eliminate viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus. U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2009–3107, 4 pGoogle Scholar
  68. Wedemeyer GA (1996) Physiology of fish in intensive culture systems. Chapman & Hall, New York, 250 ppCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Westers H (2001) Production. In: Wedemeyer GA (ed) Fish hatchery management, 2nd edn. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, pp 31–89Google Scholar
  70. Zitzow RE (1991) Extended incubation of walleye eggs with low-flow incubators. Prog Fish Cult 53:188–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Natural Resource Ecology and ManagementIowa State University of Science and TechnologyAmesUSA
  2. 2.Rathbun Fish Culture Research FacilityIowa Department of Natural ResourcesMoraviaUSA

Personalised recommendations