Zinc coordination sphere in biochemical zinc sites

  • David S. Auld


Zinc is known to be indispensable to growth and development and transmission of the genetic message. It does this through a remarkable mosaic of zinc binding motifs that orchestrate all aspects of metabolism. There are now nearly 200 three dimensional structures for zinc proteins, representing all six classes of enzymes and covering a wide range of phyla and species. These structures provide standards of reference for the identity and nature of zinc ligands in other proteins for which only the primary structure is known. Three primary types of zinc sites are apparent from examination of these structures: structural,catalytic and cocatalytic. The most common amino acids that supply ligands to these sites are His, Glu, Asp and Cys. In catalytic sites zinc generally forms complexes with water and any three nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur donors with His being the predominant amino acid chosen. Water is always a ligand to such sites. Structural zinc sites have four protein ligands and no bound water molecule. Cys is the preferred ligand in such sites. Cocatalytic sites contain two or three metals in close proximity with two of the metals bridged by a side chain moiety of a single amino acid residue, such as Asp, Glu or His and sometimes a water molecule. Asp and His are the preferred amino acids for these sites. No Cys ligands are found in such sites. The scaffolding of the zinc sites is also important to the function and reactivity of the bound metal. The influence of zinc on quaternary protein structure has led to the identification of a fourth type of zinc binding site, protein interface. In this case zinc sites are formed from ligands supplied from amino acid residues residing in the binding surface of two proteins. The resulting zinc site usually has the coordination properties of a catalytic or structural zinc binding site.

Key words

crystal structure metalloenzyme NMR protein sequence X-ray crystallography XAFS or X-ray absorption fine structure 



ATP-binding cassette


Aeromonas proteolytica aminopeptidase


adenosine deaminase


A disintegrin and metalloprotease domain


alcohol dehydrogenase


5-aminolevulinic acid


5-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase

Apo2L or TRAIL

apoptosis-inducing ligand 2


baculovirus inhibitor of apoptosis repeat


bovine lens leucine aminopeptidase


carbonic anhydrase


γ-carbonic anhydrase


carboxypeptidase A


cytidine deaminase


ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

eNOS or NOS-3

endothelial nitric oxide synthase


farnesyl diphosphate


farnesyl transferase




human immunodeficiency virus


geranylgeranyl diphosphate




class II major histocompatibility molecule


human interferon


inhibitor of apoptosis

iNOS or NOS-2

inducible nitric oxide synthase


E. coli immunity protein


International Union of Biochemistry


system for classification of peptidase sequences


methionine aminopeptidase-1


methionine aminopeptidase-2


major histocompatibility complex


matrix metalloproteinase




nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide


reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide


nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate


nerve growth factor


neuronal nitric oxide synthase


perturbed angular correlation of γ-rays


purple acid phosphatase




porphobilinogen synthase


enzyme acting on peptides


periplasmic ligand-bindinprotein


protein kinase C


phosphomannose isomerase


signal transducing protein


pneumococcal surface antigen


enzyme acting on proteins

SEA, B etc

staphylococcal enterotoxins type A, B etc

SPEA, C etc

streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins type A, C etc


streptococcal mitogenic exotoxin


superoxide dismutase


T cell receptor




tartrate-resistant acid phosphatases


tumor necrosis factor


tumor necrosis factor-α-converting enzyme


toxic shock syndrome toxin


dipeptidase of vancomycin-resistant pathogenic Enterococci


X-ray absorption fine structure.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • David S. Auld
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Biochemical and Biophysical Sciences and Medicine and Department of PathologyHarvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA

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