The Two-Dimensional View of the History of Chemistry

  • Alexander A. Pechenkin
Part of the Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science book series (BSPS, volume 151)


As far as this article is concerned with the metaphor of the dimensions of the history of science, it needs some comments on G. Holton’s discussion of the two-dimensional view of science.1 G. Holton calls the standard philosophical view of science which has its roots in empirism or positivism a two-dimensional view. To explain that view he uses a mnemonic device of two orthogonal axes representing the two dimensions of a plane. These dimensions are phenomenal and analytic. A scientific statement, in the “standard” view, is analogous to an element of area in the plane, and the projection of it onto axes are the aspects of the statement that can be rendered, respectively, as the phenomenal aspect (protocol of observation) and the analytic one (protocol of calculation). In other words, any scientific statement has “meaning” only so far as it can be shown to have phenomenal and/or analytic components in the plane.


Chemical Kinetic Scientific Statement Chemical Affinity Nonequilibrium Thermodynamic Chemical Phenomenon 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    G. Holton. The Advancement of Science, and its Burdens. ( Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986 ), pp. 6–27.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    B. M. Kedrov. On the Marxist History of Natural Sciences. (Moscow, 1968 ) (in Russian).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    B. M. Kedrov. The Three Aspects of Atomism. Vol. 2 (Moscow, 1969 ), p. 294 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    G. V. Bykov. “The Prestructural Theories of Organic Chemistry in Russia”, Proceedings of the Institute of History of Science and Technology (Moscow, 1958 ) (in Russian).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    H. Metzger.Newton,Stahl,Boerhaave et la doctrine chemique(Paris, 1930); V. P. Zubov.The Development of Atomism till the Beginning of XIX(Moscow, 1965 ) (in Russian).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    C. Schorlemmer.The Rise and Development of Organic Chemistry(London, New-York: Macmillan, 1894), Russian translation: Moscow, 1937, p. 46.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    B. N. Menshutkin.Chemistry and Ways of its Development. (Moscow, 1937 ) (in Russian).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    R. Feynman, R. Leyton, and M. Sands. Faynman Lectures on Physics. Vol. 2 (Reading Mass., 1964), p. 31—I.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    G. Nicolis and I. Prigogine. Selforganization in Non-Equilibrium Systems(New York, 1977 ), p. 49.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    N. N. Semenov. The Chain Reactions (Moscow, 1934 ), p. 19 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    L. P. Hammett Physical Organic Chemistry(New York, London: McGraw-Hill, 1940 ), CH. I.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    S.Z. Roginsky. “An Introduction”,The Problems of Kinetics and Catalysis. Vol. 14 (Moscow, 1970), p. 8 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    I. Prigogine.From Being to Becoming: Time and Complexity in the Physical Sciences(W. H. Freeman and Co, 1980 ), p. 130.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    A. P. Rudenko.The Theory of the Self-development of Open Catalytic Systems(Moscow, 1969 ) (in Russian).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    A. A. Pechenkin. The Interconnection between Physics and Chemistry: Philosophical Analysis (Moscow, 1986 ) (in Russian).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexander A. Pechenkin
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of History of Science and TechnologyRussian Academy of SciencesRussia

Personalised recommendations