Advertisement

A comparative study on the feeding of eel, Anguilla anguilla (L.), bream, Abramis brama (L.) and ruffe, Gymnocephalus cernuus (L.) in Lake Võrtsjärv, Estonia

  • Külli Kangur
  • Andu Kangur
  • Peeter Kangur
Chapter
Part of the Developments in Hydrobiology book series (DIHY, volume 143)

Abstract

The stomach contents of eel, bream and ruffe were examined in order to detect the diet overlap and possible food competition between these benthophagous fishes in the eutrophic Lake Võrtsjärv. The frequency of occurrence, mean number and mean restored weight of food items per individual were used for the description of their diet. Overlap in diet of bream (standard length >15 cm), eel (SL>30 cm) and ruffe (SL>4.5 cm) appeared mostly in respect of Chironomus plumosus (L.) larvae and pupae, which may lead to food competition between these fishes. However, these fishes can eat different chironomid instars. Unlike eel, who takes mainly large fourth-instar larvae and pupae of C. plumosus, ruffe and bream eat, in addition, small third-and second-instar larvae of this species as well as other small-sized chironomids, mainly Einfeldia carbonaria (Meig.), Microchironomus tener (Kieff.) and Procladius spp. Obviously, even if the overlap was pronounced, serious competitive interactions would arise only in case of limited food resources in the years with a low biomass of C. plumosus. A significant correlation (r= 0.88; P < 0.05) was found between the mean biomass of fourth-instar larvae of C. plumosus in the lake sediment and in the stomach of ruffe in different years. The diet composition of ruffe was more diverse (including a wide range of invertebrates, fish ova and detritus) than that of eel and bream. Evidently, omnivorous mode of feeding provides ruffe with an advantage over other benthophagous fishes living in the lake. Unlike eel and bream, ruffe continued to take food in late autumn and winter when water temperature in L. Võrtsjäry decreased to 2–0.2°C.

Key words

eel bream ruffe feeding Lake Võrtsjäry 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adams, C. E., 1994. The fish community of Loch Lomond, Scotland: its history and rapidly changing status. Hydrobiologia 290: 91–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adams, C. E. & R. Tippett, 1991. Powan, Coregonus favaretus (L.), ova predation by newly introduced ruffe, Gymnocephalus cernuus ( L.), in Loch Lomond, Scotland. Aquacult. Fish. Mgmt 22: 239–246.Google Scholar
  3. Antipova, L. F., 1981. Feeding of benthophagous fish in Pskov-Chud Lake, its quantitative and qualitative characteristics. Sbornik Nauchnykh Trudov Gosudarstvennogo NauchnoIssledovatel`skogo Instituta Ozernogo i Rechnogo Rybnogo Khozyaistva, 162: 181–198 (in Russian with English summary).Google Scholar
  4. Bergman, E., 1987. Temperature-dependent differences in foraging ability of two percids, Perca fluviatilis and Gymnocephalus cernuus. Envir. Biol. Fishes 19: 45–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bergman, E. 1991. Changes in abundance of two percids, Perca fluviatilis and Gymnocephalus cernuus, along a productivity gradient: relations to feeding strategies and competitive abilities. Can. J. Fish. aquat. Sci. 48: 536–545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Collette, B. B., M. A. Ali, K. E. F. Hokanson, M. Nageic, S. A. Smirnov, J. E. Thorpe, A. H. Weatherley & J. Willemsen, 1977. Biology of percids. J. Fish. Res. Bd Can. 34: 1890–1899.Google Scholar
  7. De Nie, H. W., 1987. Food, feeding periodicity and consumption of the eel, Anguilla anguilla (L.) in the shallow eutrophic Tjeukemeer (The Netherlands). Arch. Hydrobiol. 109: 421–443.Google Scholar
  8. Giles, N., M. Street & R. M. Wright, 1990. Diet composition and prey preference of tench, Tinca tinca (L.), common bream, Ab-ramis brama (L.), perch, Perca fluviatilis L., and roach, Rutilus rutilus (L.), in two contrasting gravel pit lakes: potential trophic overlap with wildfowl. J. Fish Biol. 37: 945–957.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Haberman, J., P. Nöges, T. Nöges, E. Pihu, K. Kangur, A. Kangur & V. Kisand, 1998. Characterization of Lake Vörtsjärv. Limnologica 28: 3–11.Google Scholar
  10. Jeppesen, E., 1998. The Ecology of Shallow Lakes: Trophic Interactions in the Pelagial. NERI Technical Report No. 247: 359 pp.Google Scholar
  11. Jeppesen, E., J. P. Jensen, M. Spndergaard, T. Lauridsen, L. J. Pedersen & L. Jensen, 1997. Top-down control in freshwater lakes: the role of nutrient state, submerged macrophytes and water depth. Hydrobiologia 342 /343: 151–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kâlâs, S., 1995. The ecology of ruffe, Gymnocephalus cernuus ( Pisces: Percidae) introduced to Mildevatn, western Norway. Envir. Biol. Fishes 42: 219–232.Google Scholar
  13. Kangur, A., 1989. The significance of Chironomus plumosus L. on the feeding of eel in Lake Vörtsjäry (Estonian SSR, USSR). Acta Biol. Debr., Oecol. Hung. 3: 177–187.Google Scholar
  14. Kangur, A. & K. Kangur, 1998a. Relationship between the population dynamics of Chironomidae and the condition factor of European eel (Anguilla anguilla) in Lake Vörtsjärv. Limnologica 28: 103–107.Google Scholar
  15. Kangur, A. & P. Kangur, 1998b. Diet composition and size-related changes in the feeding of pikeperch, Stizostedion lucioperca (L.) and pike, Esox lucius L. in Lake Peipsi (Estonia). Italian J. Zool. 65: 255–259.Google Scholar
  16. Kangur, K., 1999. A comparative study of Chironomidae in two large lakes of Estonia. NERI Technical Report. No. 266: 113–121.Google Scholar
  17. Kangur, K. & A. Kangur, 1978. [Length-weight characteristics of Chironomus plumosus L. larvae in Lake Vörtsjärv]. Biologiya vnutrennih vod. Informatsionnyj byulleten 37: 51–55 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  18. Kangur, K. & A. Kangur, 1996. Feeding of ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus) in relation to the abundance of benthic organisms in Lake Vörtsjäry ( Estonia ). Ann. zool. fenn. 33: 473–480.Google Scholar
  19. Kangur, K. & L. Tuvikene, 1998. Live wet weight, dry weight and caloricity of some macrobenthic invertebrates of Lake Vörtsjärv. Limnologica 28: 85–89.Google Scholar
  20. Lammens, E. H. R. R., 1985. A test model for planktivorous filter feeding by bream Abramis brama L. Envir. Biol. Fishes 13: 289–296.Google Scholar
  21. Lammens, E. H. R. R. & J. T. Visser, 1989. Variability of mouth width in European eel, Anguilla anguilla, in relation to varying feeding conditions in three Dutch lakes. Envir. Biol. Fishes 26: 63–75.Google Scholar
  22. Lammens, E. H. R. R., H. W. de Nie, J. Vijverberg, & W. L. T. van Densen, 1985. Resource partitioning and niche shifts of bream (Abramis brama) and eel (Anguilla anguilla) mediated by predation of smelt (Osmerus eperlanus) on Daphnia hyalina. Can. J. Fish. aquat. Sci. 42: 1342–1351.Google Scholar
  23. Mackey, A. P., 1979. Trophic dependencies of some larval Chironomidae ( Diptera) and fish species in the river Thames. Hydro-biologia 62: 241–247.Google Scholar
  24. Mortensen, E., E. Jeppesen, M. Sf ndergaard & L. Kamp (eds), 1994. Nutrient Dynamics and Biological Structure in Shallow Freshwater and Brackish Lakes. Developments in Hydrobiology 94. Dordrecht: 507 pp.Google Scholar
  25. Nöges, T., P. Nöges, J. Haberman, V. Kisand, K. Kangur, A. Kangur & A. Järvalt, 1998. Food web structure in shallow eutrophic Lake Vörtsjäry ( Estonia ). Limnologica 28: 115–128.Google Scholar
  26. Pihu, E., 1998. Fishes and fisheries management in Lake Vörtsjärv. Limnologica 28: 91–94.Google Scholar
  27. Rösch R. & W. Smidt, 1996. Ruffe, newly introduced into Lake Constance, population dynamics and possible effects on coregonids. Ann. zool. fenn. 33: 467–471.Google Scholar
  28. Rösch, R., A. Kangur, K. Kangur, A. Krämer, P. Rab, V. Schlechta, M. Tapaninen & J. Treasurer, 1996. Minutes of the PERCIS II working group. Ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus). Ann. zool. fenn. 33: 305–308.Google Scholar
  29. Santamarina, J., 1993. Feeding ecology of a vertebrate assemblage inhabiting a stream of NW Spain (Riobo; Ulla basin ). Hydrobiologia 252: 175–191.Google Scholar
  30. Shchashchaev, Yu. A., 1985. [Feeding of bream in Lake Ladoga, its age related and seasonal characteristics]. Sbornik Nauchnykh Trudov Gosudarstvennogo Nauchno-Issledovatel`skogo Instituta Ozernogo i Rechnogo Rybnogo Khozyaistva, 237: 50–55 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  31. Tatrai, I., 1980. About feeding conditions of bream (Abramis brama L.) in Lake Balaton. Hydrobiologia 3: 81–86.Google Scholar
  32. Ten Winkel, E. H. & C. Davids, 1987. Population dynamics aspects of chironomid larvae of the littoral zone of Lake Maarsseveen I. Hydrobiol. Bull. 21: 81–94.Google Scholar
  33. Tesch, F. W., 1977. The Eel. Biology and Management of Anguillid Eels. Chapman & Hall, London: 434 pp.Google Scholar
  34. Timm, H., K. Kangur, T. Timm & V. Timm, 1990. Peipsi makrozoobentose seisund [State of macrozoobenthos of Lake Peipsi]. In T. Timm (ed.), State of Lake Peipsi. Tartu: 123–126.Google Scholar
  35. Winfield, I. J. & I. D. McCulloch, 1995. An indexed bibliography of the ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus L.) (Percidae): a carnivorous freshwater fish threatening rare fishes following recent introductions in Britain, Europe and North America. Freshwat. Biol. Assoc. (Occasional Publication 31 ): 40 pp.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Külli Kangur
    • 1
  • Andu Kangur
    • 1
  • Peeter Kangur
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of ZoologyBotany of the Estonian Agricultural UniversityRannuEstonia

Personalised recommendations