Hydrothermodynamic features of mass exchange across the sediment-water interface in shallow lakes

  • Sergey D. Golosov
  • Natalia V. Ignatieva
Part of the Developments in Hydrobiology book series (DIHY, volume 143)


Long-term field observations on different shallow lakes revealed a sharp increase in concentration of dissolved inorganic nutrients (phosphorus and nitrogen) during the autumn cooling. It was found that a source of nutrients were bottom sediments. The phenomenon has been studied by applying a new approach based on the assumption of interrelation between heat and mass transfer across the sediment-water interface. During the autumn cooling, the upper sediment layer is warmer than the near-bottom water that may cause a convective instability in pore water with high nutrient concentration. Under certain conditions, the Rayleigh number (the main parameter characterizing a density convection) becomes higher than the critical one. As a result, the viscous density convection starts to develop in the pore water. In this case nutrients transfer across the sediment-water interface by thermal macrovolumes with positive buoyancy. The effectiveness of such mass transfer is several orders greater than that of molecular diffusion. This hypothesis was checked by special field and laboratory experiments which were carried out on shallow Lake Krasnoye. The mathematical model of this phenomenon was developed and verified against numerous experimental data.

Key words

sediment-water interaction boundary layer density convection heat and mass transfer ecosystem modelling 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bennet, C. O. & J. E. Myers, 1962. Momentum, heat and mass transfer. New York, London, Toronto. Mc Graw-Hill Book Co.: 726 pp.Google Scholar
  2. Denton, R. A., 1978. Entrainment by penetrative convection at low Peclet number. V. of Cant. C. Eng. Dept. Res. Report, N 78 /1: 31 – 45.Google Scholar
  3. Golitsyn, G. S., 1980. Issledovaniya konvektsii s geofizicheskimi prilozheniyami. Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdat: 56 p. (Geophysical applications of convection study ) (in Russian).Google Scholar
  4. Kamp-Nielsen, L., 1975. A kinetic approach to the aerobic sediment-water exchange of phosphorus in Lake Esrom. Envir. Model. 1: 153–160.Google Scholar
  5. Lee, G. F., W. C. Sonzogni & R. D. Spear, 1977. Significance of oxic vs anoxic conditions for Lake Mendota sediment phosphorus release. In H. L. Golterman (ed.), Interactions Between Sediments and Freshwater. The Hague: 294 – 306.Google Scholar
  6. Mironov, D. V., S. D. Golosov, S. S. Zilitinkevich & K. D. Kreiman, 1991. Seasonal changes of temperature and mixing conditions in a lake. In S. S. Zilitinkevich (ed.), Modelling Air-lake Interaction. Physical background. Springer Verlag: 74 – 90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Mortimer, C. H., 1941. The exchange of dissolved substances between mud and water in lakes. I. J. Ecol. 29: 280–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Mortimer, C. H., 1942. The exchange of dissolved substances between mud and water in lakes. II. J. Ecol. 30: 147–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Sinke, A. J. C., A. A. Cornelese, P. Keizer, O. F. R. van Tongeren & T. E. Cappenberg, 1990. Mineralization, pore water chemistry and phosphorus release from peaty sediments in the eutrophic Loosdrecht lakes, The Netherlands. Freshwat. Biol. 23: 587–599.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Stravinskaya, E. A., 1988. Osobennosti gidrohimicheskogo rezhima ozera v usloviyah slabogo antropogennogo vozdeistviya. In Metodicheskie aspecty limnologicheskogo monitoringa, Leningrad, Nauka: 25–52 (Peculiarities of hydrochemical regime of the lake under conditions of weak anthropogenic pressure) (in Russian).Google Scholar
  11. Turner, J. S., 1973. Buoyancy effects in fluids. Cambridge Univ. Press: 367 pp.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sergey D. Golosov
    • 1
  • Natalia V. Ignatieva
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Limnology of the Russian Academy of SciencesSaint-PetersburgRussia

Personalised recommendations