Advertisement

Charge Transfer Excitation of Coordination Compounds. Generation of Reactive Intermediates

  • A. Vogler
  • H. Kunkely
Chapter
Part of the Catalysis by Metal Complexes book series (CMCO, volume 14)

Abstract

Reactive compounds exhibit frequently catalytic properties. Particularly, many reactive metal complexes are characterized by their catalytic activity. Photochemistry presents one of the most important and versatile methods for the generation of reactive compounds. The design of photochemically generated catalysts requires a deeper insight in the photochemistry in general. The choice of appropriate light-sensitive precursors can be guided by several considerations. A straight-forward approach involves the selection of compounds according to the type of electronic excitation which often predetermines the nature of the photoproducts.

Keywords

Charge Transfer State Back Electron Transfer Charge Transfer Excitation Charge Transfer Excited State MLCT Band 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    A.B.P. Lever: Inorganic Electronic Spectroscopy, Elsevier, Amsterdam (1984).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    V. Balzani and V. Carassiti: Photochemistry of Coordination Compounds, Academic Press, New York (1970).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    A.W. Adamson and P.D. Fleischauer (eds.): Concepts of Inorganic Photochemistry, Wiley-Interscience, New York (1975).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    G.L. Geoffroy and M.S. Wrighton: Organometallic Photochemistry, Academic, New York (1979).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    G.J. Ferraudi: Elements of Inorganic Photochemistry, Wiley-Interscience, New York (1988).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    J. Sykora and J. Sima: Coord. Chem. Rev., 107, 1 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    T.J. Meyer and J.V. Caspar: Chem. Rev., 85, 187 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    A. Vogler, A. Paukner and H. Kunkely: Coord. Chem. Rev., 57, 285 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    C. Kutal: Coord. Chem. Rev., 99, 213 (1990)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    P.C. Ford, R.E. Hintze, and J.D. Petersen, in ref. 3, p. 203.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    A. Vogler and A. Kern: Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem., 83, 500 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    M.A. Fox and M. Chanon (eds.): Photoinduced Electron Transfer,Elsevier, Amsterdam, part D.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    A. Vogler, A.H. Osman and H. Kunkely: Coord. Chem. Rev., 64, 159 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    H. Hennig, D. Rehorek and R.D. Archer: Coord. Chem. Rev., 61, 1 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    V. Balzani, N. Sabbatini and F. Scandola: Chem. Rev., 86, 319 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    H. Hennig, D. Rehorek and R. Billing: Comments Inorg. Chem. 8, 63 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    A. Vogler and H. Kunkely: Top. Curr. Chem., 158, 1 (1990)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    R. Billing, D. Rehorek and H. Hennig: Top. Curr. Chem., 158, 151 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    a) C.K. Jorgensen: Modern Aspects of Ligand Field Theory, North-Holland (1971); (b) C.K. Jorgensen: Oxidation Numbers and Oxidation States, Springer-Verlag, New York (1968); (c) C.K. Jorgensen: Absorption Spectra and Chemical Bonding in Complexes, Pergamon, Oxford (1962)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    A. Vogler and H. Kunkely: Comments Inorg. Chem., 9, 201 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. C.K. Jorgensen: Adv. Chem. Phys., 5, 33 (1963)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    H. Kunkely, T. Türk, C. Teixeira, C. de Meric de Bellefon, W.A. Herrmann and A. Vogler: Organometallics„ 10, 2090 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    J.J. Alexander and H.B. Gray: J. Am. Chem. Soc., 90, 4260 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    E. Verdonck and L.G. Vanquickenbome: Inorg. Chem., 13, 762 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    H. Kunkely and A. Vogler: J. Organomet. Chem., 378, C15 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    M.E. Koutek and W.R. Mason: Inorg. Chem., 19, 648 (1980); (b) M.M. Savas and W.R. Mason: Inorg. Chem., 26, 301 (1987)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    H. Kunkely and A. Vogler: Polyhedron., 8, 2731 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    A. Vogler and H. Nikol: Pure Appl. Chem., 64, 1311 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    A. Vogler, A. Paukner and H. Kunkely: Coord. Chem. Rev., 97, 285 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    R.A. Walton, R.W. Matthews and C.K. Jorgensen: Inorg. Chim. Acta., 1, 355 (1967)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    P.N. Schatz, P.J. Stephens, G.N. Henning and A.J. McCaffery: Inorg. Chem., 7, 1247 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    D.A. Couch, C.J. Wilkins, G.R. Rossmann and H.B. Gray: J. Am. Chem. Soc., 92, 307 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    D.J. Stufkens: Rec. Tray. Chim., 89, 1185 (1970)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    J.T. Bell and R.E. Biggers: J. Mol. Spectrosc.,, 18, 247 (1965)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    C.K. Jorgensen and R. Reisfeld: Struct. Bonding (Berlin), 50, 136 (1982)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Y. Haas, G. Stein and M. Tomkiewicz: J. Phys. Chem., 74, 2558 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    M. Fox in ref. 3, p. 333.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    C. Gianotti, S. Gaspard and P. Krausz in ref. 12, p. 200.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    G. Blasse: Struct. Bonding (Berlin)., 76, 153 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    K.L. Stevenson, J.L. Braun, D.D. Davis, K.S. Kurtz and R.I. Sparks: Inorg. Chem., 27, 3472 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    K. Kalyanasundaram: Photochemistry of Polypyridine and Porphyrin Complexes, Academic Press, London (1992).Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    A. Vogler and H. Kunkely: Inorg. Chim. Acta, 150, 1 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    A. Vogler in ref. 3, p. 269.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    R.W. Wright and A. Vogler: J. Organomet. Chem., 160, 197 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    P.M. Gidney, R.D. Gillard and B.T. Heaton: J. Chem. Soc., Dalton Trans., 132 (1973)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    R.G. Denning, F.R. Hartley and L.M. Venanzi: J. Chem. Soc. (A), 1322 (1967)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    N. Rösch, R.P. Messmer and K.H. Johnson: J. Am. Chem. Soc., 96, 3855 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    M. Dartiguenave, Y. Dartiguenave and H.B. Gray: Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr., 12, 4223 (1969)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    A. Vogler, J. Kisslinger and W.R. Roper: Z. Naturforsch., 38b, 1506 (1983)Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    A.B.P. Lever, G.A. Ozin, A.J. Hanlan, W.J. Power and H.B. Gray: Inorg. Chem., 18, 2088 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    M. Kotzian, N. Rösch, H. Schroder, M.C. Zerner: J. Am. Chem. Soc., 111, 7687 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    H. Kunkely and A. Vogler: J. Organomet. Chem., 431, C42 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    D.J. Casadonte, D.R. McMillin: J. Am. Chem. Soc., 109, 331 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    a). W.R. Mason: J. Am. Chem. Soc., 98, 5182 (1976); (b) S.K. Chastain and W.R. Mason: Inorg. Chem., 21, 3717 (1982)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    H. Kunkely, A. Paukner, A. Vogler: Polyhedron„ 8, 2937 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    D. Brown (ed.): Mixed-Valence Compounds, Reidel, Dordrecht (1980).Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    C. Creutz: Progr. Inorg. Chem., 30, 1 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    N.S. Hush: Progr. Inorg. Chem., 8, 391 (1967)Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    A. Vogler, A.H. Osman and H. Kunkely: Coord. Chem. Rev., 64, 159 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    A. Vogler in ref. 12, p. 179.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    A. Vogler and H. Kunkely: Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem., 79, 83 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    H. Kunkely, G. Stochel and A. Vogler: Z. Naturforsch, 44b, 145 (1989)Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    C.I. Browne, R.P. Craig and N. Davidson: J. Am. Chem. Soc., 73, 1946 (1951)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    A. Vogler and H. Kunkely: Z. Naturforsch., 44b, 132 (1989)Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    A. Vogler and H. Kunkely: J. Organomet. Chem., 355, 1 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    G.J. Stor, D.J. Stufkens and A. Oskam: Inorg. Chem., 31, 1319 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    J. A. McCleverty: Progr. Inorg. Chem., 10, 49 (1968)Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    R.P. Burns and C.A. McAuliffe: Adv. Inorg. Chem. Radiochem., 22, 303 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    T.R. Miller and I.G. Dance: J. Am. Chem. Soc., 95, 6970 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    R. Benedix, H. Hennig, H. Kunkely and A. Vogler: Chem. Phys. Lett., 175, 483 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. A. Vogler and H. Kunkely: Inorg. Chim. Acta „ 54, L 273 (1981)Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    R. Benedix, F. Dietz and H. Hennig: Inorg. Chim. Acta„ 147, 179 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    A. Vogler and A. Kern: Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl., 15, 625 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    P.D. Fleischauer and P. Fleischauer: Chem. Rev., 70, 199 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    A.J. Lees: Chem. Rev., 87, 711 (1987)Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    G. Blasse: Struct. Bonding (Berlin), 42, 1 (1980); (b) G. Blasse: Prog. Solid State Chem., 18, 79 (1988)Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    H. Kunkely and A. Vogler: J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun., 1204 (1990)Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    T. Türk, U. Resch, M.A. Fox and A. Vogler: Inorg. Chem., 31, 1854 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    T. Turk, U. Resch, M.A. Fox and A. Vogler: J. Phys. Chem., 96, 3818 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    A. Vogler and H. Kunkely: Inorg. Chim. Acta„ 53, L215 (1981)Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    K. Kalyanasundaram: Coord. Chem. Rev., 46, 159 (1982)Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    A.B. Bocarsly, R.E. Cameron, H.-D. Rubin, G.A. McDermott, C.R. Wolff and A. Mayr: Inorg. Chem., 24, 3977 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    K.R. Mann, H.B. Gray and G.S. Hammond: J. Am. Chem. Soc., 99, 306 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    M. Maestri, D. Sandrini, V. Balzani, L. Chassot, P. Jolliet and A. von Zelewsky: Chem. Phys. Leu., 122, 375 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    L. Chassot, A. von Zelewsky, D. Sandrini, M. Maestri and V. Balzani: J. Am. Chem. Soc., 108, 6084 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    D. Sandrini, M. Maestri, V. Balzani, L. Chassot and A. von Zelewsky: J. Am. Chem. Soc., 109, 7720 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    A. Vogler and H. Kunkely: J. Am. Chem. Soc., 103, 1559 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    a) K.A. Truesdell and G.A. Crosby: J. Am. Chem. Soc., 107, 1787 (1985); (b) G.A. Crosby, R.G. Highland and K.A. Truesdel: Coord. Chem. Rev., 64, 41 (1985); (c) R. Highland, J.G. Brummer and G.A. Crosby: J. Phys. Chem., 90, 1593 (1986)Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    T.A. Perkins, D.B. Pourreau, T.L. Netzel and K.S. Schanze: J. Phys. Chem., 93, 4511 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    A.W. Adamson, A. Vogler and I. Lantzke: J. Phys. Chem., 73, 4183 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    A. Vogler and A. Kern: Z. Naturforsch., 34b, 271 (1978)Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    A. Vogler and H. Kunkely: Electron and Proton Transfer in Chemistry and Biology (eds. A. Muller, H. Ratajczak, W. Junge and E. Diemann ), Elsevier, Amsterdam (1992) p. 31.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    T.D. Westmoreland, K.S. Schanze, P.E. Neveux, E. Danielson, B.P. Sullivan, P. Chen and T. J. Meyer: Inorg. Chem., 24, 2596 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    J.F. Endicott in ref. 3, p. 81.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    M. Simic and J. Lilie: J. Am. Chem. Soc., 96, 291 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    A. Vogler and R. Hirschmann: Z. Naturforsch., 31b, 1082 (1976)Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    V. Balzani, R. Ballardini, N. Sabbatini and L. Moggi: Inorg. Chem., 7, 1398 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    F. Scandola, C. Bartocci and M.A. Scandola: J. Am. Chem. Soc., 95, 7898 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    J.F. Endicott and G. Ferraudi: J. Am. Chem. Soc., 96, 3681 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    B. Kräutler: Hely. Chim. Acta, 67, 1053 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    A.L. Poznyak and V.I. Pavlovski: Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl., 27, 789 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    W.L. Wells and J.F. Endicott: J. Phys. Chem., 75, 3075 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    D.G. Lee, C.R. Moylan, T. Hayashi and J.I. Brauman: J. Am. Chem. Soc., 109, 3003 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    A. Vogler and H. Kunkely: Inorg. Chem., 27, 504 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    a) I.S. Ginns and M.C.R. Symons: J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans II„ 68, 631 (1972); (b) T.A. Claxton, R. E. Overill and M.C.R. Symons: Mol. Phys., 26, 75 (1973)Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    A. Vogler, C. Quett and H. Kunkely: Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem., 92, 1486 (1988)Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    a) J.L. Reed, F. Wang and F. Basolo: J. Am. Chem. Soc., 94, 7173 (1972); (b) H. D. Gafney, J. L. Reed and F. Basolo: J. Am. Chem. Soc., 95, 7998 (1973); (c) J.L. Reed, H.D. Gafney and F. Basolo: J. Am. Chem. Soc., 96, 1363 (1974)Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    a) G. Ferraudi and J.F. Endicott: J. Am. Chem. Soc., 95, 2371 (1973); (b) G. Ferraudi and J.F. Endicott:Inorg. Chem, 12, 2389 (1973)Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    R.M. Dahlgren and J.I. Zink: Inorg. Chem., 18, 597 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    J.I. Zink: Inorg. Chem., 14, 446 (1975)Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    G.A. Shagisultanova: Koord. Khim., 7, 1527 (1981) (in Russian); (b) I.I. Blinov and G.A. Shagisultanova: Koord. Khim., 8, 191 (1982) (in Russian); (c) K.P. Balashev, I.I. Blinov and G.A. Shagisultanova: Koord. Khim., 13, 1674 (1987) (in Russian).Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    R.C. Wright and G.S. Laurence: J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun., 132 (1972)Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    a) V.P. Grivin, I.V. Khmelinski, V.F. Plyusnin, M. Mitewa and P.R. Bontchev: J. Photochem. Photobiol. A: Chem.,62 15 (1991); (b) V.P. Grivin, I.V. Khmelinski, V.F. Plyusnin, M. Mitewa, J. Angelova, E. Dimitrova and P. R. Bontchev: J. Photochem. Photobiol. A: Chem. 63,7 (1992) and references cited therein.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    A. Vogler, A. Kern, B. Fusseder and J. Hüttermann: Z. Naturforsch, 33b, 1352 (1978)Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    A. Vogler, A. Kern and J. Huttermann: Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl., 17, 524 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    D. M. Blake and C.J. Nyman: J. Am. Chem. Soc., 92, 5359 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    A. Vogler, R.E. Wright and H. Kunkely: Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl., 19, 717 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. a) R.S. Paonessa and W.C. Trogler: Organometallics„ 1,768 (1982); (b) R.S. Paonessa, A.L. Prignano and W.C. Trogler: Organometallics,4 647 (1985); (c) W.C. Trogler: The Chemistry of Excited States and Reactive Intermediates (A.B.P. Lever, ed.), p. 177, ACS Symposium Series Nr. 307, American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C. (1986).Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    A. Vogler and A. Paukner: J. Photochem. Photobiol. A: Chem., 46, 227 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    A. Vogler and H. Kunkely: Inorg. Chim. Acta, 162, 167 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    V. Balzani, F. Bolletta, M.T. Gandolfi and M. Maestri: Top. Curr. Chem., 75, 1 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    a) W.L. Waltz, A.W. Adamson and P.D. Fleischauer: J. Am. Chem. Soc., 89, 3923 (1967); (b) W.L. Waltz and A.W. Adamson: J. Phys. Chem., 73, 4250 (1969)Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    a) M. Shirom and G. Stein: J. Chem. Phys., 55, 3372 (1971); (b) M. Shirom and M. Weiss: J. Chem. Phys., 56, 3170 (1972); (c) 0. Kalisky and M. Shirom: J. Photochem., 7, 215 (1977)Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    A. Horvath, S. Papp and Z. Decsy: J. Photochem., 24, 331 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    A. Vogler, W. Losse and H. Kunkely: J. Chem. Soc.,Chem. Commun., 188 (1979)Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    J.D. Carter, K.B. Kingsbury, A. Wilde, T.K. Schoch, C.J. Leep, E.K. Pham and L. McElwee-White: J. Am. Chem. Soc., 113, 2947 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    A. Vogler and H. Kunkely: Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl., 21, 209 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    F.W. Grevels and E. Koerner von Gustorf: Liebigs Ann. Chem., 547 (1975)Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    P.P. Zarnegar, C.R. Bock and D.G. Whitten: J. Am. Chem. Soc., 95, 4367 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    P.C. Servaas, D.J. Stufkens and A. Oskam: J. Organomet. Chem., 390, 61 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    P.A. Lay and W.H.F. Sasse: Inorg. Chem., 23, 4123 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    a) D.A. Chaisson, R.E. Hintze, D.H. Stuermer, J.D. Peterson, D.P. McDonald and P.C. Ford: J. Am. Chem. Soc., 94, 6665 (1972); (b) P.C. Ford, D.A. Chaisson and D.H. Stuermer: J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun., 530 (1971)Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    A.J. Rest and J.J. Turner: J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun., 1026 (1969)Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    A.J. Rest: J. Organomet. Chem., 40, C76 (1972)Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    D.J. Stufkens: Coord. Chem. Rev., 104, 39 (1990)Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    P.C. Servaas, D.J. Stufkens and A. Oskam: Inorg. Chem., 28, 1780 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    W. Evans and J.I. Zink: J. Am. Chem. Soc., 103, 2635 (1981)Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    R.W. Balk, T.L. Snoeck, D.J. Stufkens and A. Oskam: Inorg. Chem., 19, 3015 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    P. Natarajan and A.W. Adamson: J. Am. Chem. Soc., 93, 5599 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    A. Vogler and H. Kunkely: Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem., 79, 301 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    M. Zhou, B.W. Pfennig, J. Steiger, D.V. Engen and A.B. Bocarsly: Inorg. Chem., 29, 2456 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    J.M. Malin, D.A. Ryan and T.V. O’Hallotan: J. Am. Chem. Soc., 100, 2097 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    M. Kaupp, H. Stoll, H. Preuss, W. Kaim, T. Stahl, G. van Koten, E. Wissing, W.J.J. Smeets and A.L. Spek: J. Am. Chem. Soc., 113, 5606 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    a) H. Hennig, R. Stich, H. Knoll and D. Rehorek: Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem., 576, 139 (1989); (b) H. Knoll, R. Stich, H. Hennig and D.J. Stufkens: Inorg. Chim. Acta, 178, 71 (1990)Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    The photoreduction of chloroplatinum complexes by alcohol leads also to the formation of metallic platinum (R.E. Cameron and A.B. Bocarsly: Inorg. Chem.,25 2910 (1986)). However, the photolysis is apparently also induced by LF excitation.Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    J.G. Calvert and J.N. Pitts, Photochemistry, Wiley, New York, 1966.Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    W.R. Mason: Inorg. Chem., 27, 437 (1988)Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    W.C. Trogler (ed.): Organometallic Radical Processes, Elsevier, Amsterdam (1990).Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    a). A.E. Stiegmann and D.R. Tyler: Coord. Chem. Rev., 63, 217 (1985); (b) D.R. Tyler: Progr. lnorg. Chem., 36, 125 (1988)Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    A. Vogler and H. Kunkely: J. Am. Chem. Soc., 103, 6222 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    C. Kutal and C.G. Willson: J. Electrochem. Soc., 134, 2280 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Vogler
    • 1
  • H. Kunkely
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für Anorganische ChemieUniversität RegensburgRegensburgGermany

Personalised recommendations