Spectra of Formulae with Henkin Quantifiers

  • Joanna Golińska
  • Konrad Zdanowski
Part of the Synthese Library book series (SYLI, volume 320)


Scholz defined the spectrum of a formula φ as the set of cardinalities of all finite structures in which φ is true and the spectrum of a logic as the set of spectra of all formulae of this logic. The spectrum problem is usually considered as one of the following:
  1. 1

    Scholz problem: to give a characterization of the spectrum of a given logic.

  2. 2

    Asser problem: is the spectrum of a given logic closed under complement?



Equivalence Class Arithmetical Operation Generalize Spectrum Finite Model Universal Variable 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joanna Golińska
    • 1
  • Konrad Zdanowski
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of PhilosophyWarsaw UniversityPoland

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