Advertisement

Solidification Contraction: Another Approach to Cumulus Processes and the Origin of Igneous Layering

  • Jon Steen Petersen
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (ASIC, volume 196)

Abstract

The transformation from liquid to solid state involves a relative decrease in volume of 6–10% for most silicate melts. This contraction leads to melt percolation when occurring in a rigid, partially solidified crystal pile. Fluid flow is directed towards the most solidified portion where the pressure drop due to shrinkage is greater. The percolation velocity depends on the depth of the pile; at the top of the pile liquid is dragged rapidly past the crystals due to accumulated contraction in the underlying column and leads to growth of predominantly refractory compositions (adcumulates). At the base of the pile melt displacement is minimal and growth of more fractionated phases occurs (orthocumulates). As solidification contraction leads to flow of solute enriched liquid in a direction opposite to the main growth, solute-rich liquids accumulate along the margins of the magma chamber, and give rise to a marginal, inverse compositional zonation. If the refractory growth sector at the front of the crystal pile seals off the underlying volume, a discontinuous fluid dynamic situation will develop, which prevents refractory crystal growth until precipitation of another crystal pile has reached sufficient height. This process can produce repeated layers of adcumulus to orthocumulus sequences with regular spacing, provided the crystal accretion and growth rate remain constant. As for metallic casting, solidification contraction holds the potential for explaining a vast majority of compositional effects associated with crystallization of magmas.

Keywords

Magma Chamber Residual Liquid Layered Intrusion Solidification Contraction Contraction Flow 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bartlett RW (1969) Magma convection, temperature distribution, and differentiation. Am Jour Sci 267: 1067–1082.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Battacharji S and Smith CH (1964) Flowage differentiation. Science 145 150–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bhattacharji S (1967) Mechanics of flow differentiation in ultramafic and mafic sills. J Geol 75: 101–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bottinga Y and Weill DF (1969) Densities of liquid silicate systems calculated from partial molar volumes of oxide components. Am Jour Sci 269: 169–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brandeis G and Jaupart C (1986) On the interaction between convection and crystallization in cooling magma chambers. Earth Planet Sci Lett 77: 345–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brandeis G, Jaupart C, and Allegre CJ (1984) Nucleation, crystal growth and the thermal regime of cooling magmas. Jour Geophys Res 89/B12: 10. 161–10. 177.Google Scholar
  7. Campbell IH (1978) Some problems with the cumulus theory. Lithos 11: 311–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Campbell IH (1982) Layered intrusions: a mini review. In: Workshop on Magmatic Processes of Early Planetary Crusts: Magma Oceans and Stratiform Layered Intrusions. LPI Tech Rept Houston: 62–65.Google Scholar
  9. Chadwick GA (1972) Metallography of Phase Transformations. Butterworths, London. 302 pp.Google Scholar
  10. Chalmers B (1964) Principles of Solidification. Wiley Sons, New York. 319 pp.Google Scholar
  11. Chen CF and Turner JS (1980) Crystallization in a double-diffusion system. Jour Geophys Res 85/B5: 2573–2593.Google Scholar
  12. Davies GJ (1973) Solidification and casting. Appl Sci Publ Ltd., London. 205 pp.Google Scholar
  13. Dowty E (1980) Crystal growth and nucleation theory and the numerical simulation of igneous crystallization. In: RB Hargraves (ed) Physics of Magmatic Processes. Princeton Univ Pres Princeton, NJ: 419–485.Google Scholar
  14. Flemings MC (1974) Solidification Processing. McGraw-Hill, New York. 364 pp.Google Scholar
  15. Flemings MC and Nereo GE (1967) Mecrosegregation: Part I. Trans Met Soc AIME 239: 1449–1461Google Scholar
  16. Flemings MC, Mehrabian R, and Nereo GE (1968a) Macrosegregation, Part II. Trans Met Soc AIME 242: 41–69Google Scholar
  17. Flemings MC and Nereo GE (1968b) Macrosegregation, Part III. Trans Met Soc AIME 242: 50–55Google Scholar
  18. Flemings MC and Mehrabian R (1971) Segregation in castings and ingots. Solidification. Am Soc Met Metals Park, Ohio: 311–340.Google Scholar
  19. Frank FC (1968) Two-component flow model for convection in the Earth’s upper mantle. Nature 220: 350–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Harker A (1909) The Natural History of Igneous Rocks. Macmillan Book Co, New York. 384 pp.Google Scholar
  21. Hopper RW and Uhlmann DR (1974) Solute redistribution during crystallization at constant velocity and constant temperature. Jour Cryst Growth 21: 302–213.Google Scholar
  22. Huppert HE and Turner JS (1981) Double diffusive convection. J Fluid Mech 106: 299–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Irvine TN (1970) Crystallization sequences in the Muskox intrusion and other layered intrusions. Geol Soc Afr Spec Paper 1: 441–476.Google Scholar
  24. Irvine TN (1979) Rocks whose composition is determined by crystal accumulation and sorting. In: HS Yoder (ed) The Evolution of the Igneous Rocks. Fiftieth Annivesary Perspectives. Princeton Univ Press. Princeton: 245–306.Google Scholar
  25. Irvine TN (1980) Magmatic infiltration metasomatism, double-diffusive fractional crystallization, and adcumulus growth in the Muskox intrusion and other layered intrusions. In: RB Hargraves (ed) Physics of Magmatic Processes. Princeton Univ Press Princeton, NJ: 325–384.Google Scholar
  26. Irvine TN (1982) Terminology for layered intrusions. Jour Petrol 23: 127–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Jackson ED (1961) Primary textures and mineral associations in the ultramafic zone of the Stillwater Complex, Montana. Geol Sury Prof Paper 358: 106 pp.Google Scholar
  28. Jaupart C, Brandeis G, and Allegre CJ (1984) Stagnant layers at the bottom of convecting magma chambers. Nature 308: 535–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kerr RC and Tait SR (1986) Crystallization and compositional convection in a porous medium with application to layered igneous intrusions. J Geophys Res 91/B3: 3591–3608.Google Scholar
  30. Kerr RC and Turner JS (1982) Layered convection and crystal layers in multicomponent systems. Nature 298: 731–736.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kirkpatrick RJ (1975) Crystal growth from the melt: a review. Am Miner 60: 798–814.Google Scholar
  32. Kirkpatrick RJ (1976) Towards a kinetic model for the crystallization of magma bodies. Jour Geophys Res 81/14: 2565–2571.Google Scholar
  33. Kirkpatrick RJ (1977) Nucleation and growth of plagioclase, Makaopuhi and Alae lava lakes, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Bull Geol Soc Am 88: 78–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Komar PD (1972a) Flow differentiation of igneous dikes and sills: Profiles of velocity and phenocryst concentration. Geol Soc Amer Bull 83: 3443–3448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Komar PD (1972b) Mechanical interactions of of phenocrysts and flow differentiation of igneous dikes and sills. Geol Soc Amer Bull 83: 973–988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Komar PD (1976) Phenocryst interaction and the velocity profile of magma flowing through dikes or sills. Geol Soc Amer Bull 87: 1336–1342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lofgren GE (1980) Experimental studies on the dynamic crystallization of silicate melts. In: RB Hargraves (ed) Physics of Magmatic Processes. Princeton Univ Press Princeton, NJ: 487–552.Google Scholar
  38. Lofgren GE (1983) Effect of heterogeneous nucleation on basaltic textures: a dynamic crystallization study. J Petrol 24: 229–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Maaloe S (1981) Magma accumulation in the ascending mantle. J Geol Soc London 138: 223–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Maaloe S (1985) Principles of Igneous Petrology. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. 371 pp.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Maclntyre WL (1963) Trace element partition coefficients: a review of theory and applications in geology. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 27: 1209–1264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. MacKenzie DP (1984) The generation and compaction of partially molten rock. Jour Petrol 25: 713–765.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. McBirney AR and Noyes RM (1979) Crystallization and layering of the Skaergaard intrusion. J Petrol 20: 487–554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Minakawa S, Samarasekera IV and Weinberg F (1985) Inverse segregation. Met Trans 16B: 595–604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mehrabian R (1984) A review of our present understanding of macrosegregation in ingots. In: Fundamentals of Alloy Solidification Applied to Industrial Processes. NASA Conf Publ No 2337 Cleveland, Ohio: 169–186.Google Scholar
  46. Mehrabian R, Keane M and Flemings MC (1970) Interdendritic fluid flow and macrosegregation; influence of gravity. Met Trans 1: 1209–1220.Google Scholar
  47. Morse SA (1968) Layered intrusions and anorthosite genesis. In: Isachsen YW (ed) Origin of anorthosite and related rocks. New York State Museum and Sei Sery Mem 18, Albany NY: 175–187.Google Scholar
  48. Morse SA (1982) Adcumulus growth of anorthosite at the base of the lunar crust. 13th Lunar Planet Sci Conf, Jour Geophys Res 87: A10–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Murase T and McBirney AR (1973) Properties of some common igneous rocks and their melts at high temperatures. Bull Geol Soc Amer 84: 35633592.Google Scholar
  50. Parsons I (1979) The Klokken gabbro-syenite Complex, South Greenland: Cryptic variation and origin of inversely graded layering. J Petrol 20: 653–694.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Petersen JS (1985a) The directional solidification of silicate melts: crystallization kinetics and macrosegregation. Kgl Danske Vid Selsk Mat-Fys Medd 41: 337–398.Google Scholar
  52. Petersen JS (1985b) Columnar-dendritic feldspars in the Lardalite intrusion, Oslo region, Norway: 1. Implications for unilateral solidification of a stagnant boundary layer. J Petrol 26: 223–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Petersen JS (1987) Crystallization shrinkage in the region of partial solidification: Implications for silicate melts. In: Loper DE (ed) Structure and dynamics of partially solidified systems. NATO ASI series: 16pp (in press).Google Scholar
  54. Pinkerton H and Sparks RSJ (1978) Field measurement of the rheology of lava. Nature 276: 383–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Rice A (1981) Convective fractionation: apossible mechanism to provide cryptic zoning (macrosegregation), layering, crescumulates, banded tuffs, and explosive volcanism in igneous processes. Jour Geophys Res 86/B1: 405–417.Google Scholar
  56. Roberts PH and Loper DE (1983) Towards a theory of the structure and evolution of a dendrite layer. In: AM Soward (ed) Stellar and Planetary Magmatism. Gordon Breach Sei Publ New York: 329–349.Google Scholar
  57. Scheidegger AE (1960) The Physics of Flow through Porous Media. Univ Toronto Press, Toronto: 313 pp.Google Scholar
  58. Shaw HR (1965) Comments on viscosity, crystal settling, and convection in granitic magmas. Am Jour Sei 263: 120–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Shaw HR (1969) Rheology of basalt in the melting range. J Petrol 10/3 510–535.Google Scholar
  60. Shaw HR, Wright TL, Peck DL and Okamura R (1968) The viscosity of basaltic magma: an analysis of field measurements in Makaopuhi lava lake, Hawaii. Am Jour Sci 266: 225–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Sparks RSJ and Huppert HE (1984) Density changes during the fractional crystallization of basaltic magmas: implications for the evolution of layered intrusions. Contr Mineral Petrol 85: 300–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Sparks RSJ, Pinkerton H and Hulme G (1976) Classification and formation of lava levees on Mt Etna, Sicily. Geology: 269–271.Google Scholar
  63. Spera FJ (1980) Aspects of magma transport. In: RB Hargraves (ed)Google Scholar
  64. Physics of Magmatic Processes. Princeton Univ Press Princeton, NJ: 265–323.Google Scholar
  65. Stolper E and Walker D (1980) Melt density and the average composition of basalt. Contr Mineral Petrol 74: 7–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Tait SR, Huppert HE and Sparks RSJ (1984) The role of compositional convection in the formation of adcumulate rocks. Lithos 17: 139–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Tiller WA, Jackson KA, Rutter JW and Chalmers B (1953) The residtribution of solute atoms during the solidification of metals. Act Met 1: 428–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Turner JS (1980) A fluid-dynamical model of differentiation and layering in magma chambers. Nature 285: 213–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Turner JS and Gustayson LB (1981) Fluid motions and compositional gradients produced by crystallization or melting at vertical boundaries. J Volcan Geotherm Res 11: 93–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Waff HS and Bulau JR (1979) Equilibrium fluid distribution in an ultramafic partial melt under hydrostatic stress conditions. Jour Geophys Res 84: 6109–6114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Wager LR and Brown GM (1968) Layered Igneous Rocks. Oliver Boyd, Edinburgh: 588 pp.Google Scholar
  72. Wager LR, Brown GM and Wadsworth WJ (1960) Types of igneous cumulates. J Petrol 1: 73–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Wagner C (1954) Theoretical analysis of diffusion of solutes during the solidification of alloys. Trans AIME 200: 154–160.Google Scholar
  74. Walker D, Stolper EM and Hayes JF (1978) A numerical treatment of melt/solid segregation: size of the eucrite parent body and stability of the terrestrial low-velocity zone. Jour Geophys Res 83/B10: 6005–6013.Google Scholar
  75. Williams RE (1968) Space-filling polyhedron: its relation to aggregates of soap bubbles, plant cells and metal crystallites. Science 161: 276–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Yodelis WV (1968) Theory of inverse segregation. In: The Solidification of Metals. The Iron and Steel Institute. Publ no 110: 112–119.Google Scholar
  77. Yoder HS (1976) Generation of Basaltic Magma. Nat Acad Sci Washington DC: 265 pp.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jon Steen Petersen
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of GeologyUniversity of AarhusAarhus CDenmark

Personalised recommendations