A Geographical Interpretation of Cyperspace: Preliminary Analysis on the Scaling Tendency of Information Spaces

  • Narushige Shiode
Part of the The GeoJournal Library book series (GEJL, volume 70)


Rapid development of information and communication technologies over the last two decades has brought a significant impact upon many aspects of our societal and economic activities. With an estimate of over 120,000,000 host computers and 300,000,000 users from round the world (ISC, 2001), the Internet has grown to conceive, within its own network, electronically generated information spaces collectively referred to as cyberspace. The variety exhibited by such information spaces ranges from the telecommunication network of satellites and fibre-optics to the metaphorical space of the World Wide Web and further to a full 3D virtual environment. Each space has its own structure and distinctive functionality yet is closely linked to one another to comprise cyberspace as a whole, and its rapid growth is indeed beginning to generate a new geography within the wider structure of our societal and economic grounds (Batty, 1993).


Fractal Dimension Information Space Mation Space Planning Support System Distance Decay Effect 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abraham, R.H. (1996), Webometry: measuring the complexity of the World Wide Web, unpublished working paper.Google Scholar
  2. Albert, R., H. Jeong, and A.-L. Barabasi (1999), ‘Diameter of the World-Wide Web.’ Nature, 401, 130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Batty, M. (1993), ‘The geography of cyberspace.’ Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 20 (6), 615–616.Google Scholar
  4. Batty, M. (1997), ‘Virtual geography.’ Futures, 29 (4/5), 337–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Batty, M., D. Chapman, S. Evans, M. Haklay, S. Kueppers, N. Shiode, A. Smith and T. Paul (2001), `Visualizing the city: communicating urban design to planners and decision makers.’ In R.K. Brail and R.E. Klosterman (eds.), Planning Support Systems. ESRI Press, Redlands, CA, pp. 405–443.Google Scholar
  6. Batty, M. and P. Longley (1994), Fractal Cities. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  7. Bray, T. (1996), Measuring the Web, Proceedings for the 5th International World Wide Web Conference, 6–10 May, Paris ( Scholar
  8. Cairncross, F. (2001), The Death of Distance 2.0: How the Communications Revolution Will Change Our Lives. Texere, New York.Google Scholar
  9. Carriere, J. and R. Kazman (1999), WebQuery: searching and visualizing the Web through connectivity (
  10. Coffman, K.G. and A. Odlyzko (1998), `The size and growth rate of the Internet.’ First Monday, 3 (10).Google Scholar
  11. Dodge, M. and R. Kitchin (2000), Mapping Cyberspace. Routledge, London.Google Scholar
  12. Fujita. M., P. Krugman and A.J. Venables (1999), The Spatial Economy: Cities, Regions and International Trades. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  13. Goodchild, M.F. (2001), ‘Towards a location theory of distributed computing and e-commerce.’ In T.R.Leinbach and S.D.Brunn (eds.), Worlds of E-Commerce: Economic, Geographical and Social Dimensions. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, pp. 67–86.Google Scholar
  14. Groth E.J. and P.J.E. Peebles (1977), ‘Statistical analysis of catalogs of extragalactic objects.’ The Astrophysical Journal, 217, 385–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Huberman, B.A. and L.A. Adamic (1999), ‘Growth dynamics of the World-Wide Web.’ Nature, 406, 450–457.Google Scholar
  16. Internet Software Consortium,(2001), Internet domain survey (
  17. Janelle, D.G. and D.C. Hodge (2000), Information, Place, and Cyberspace: Issues in Accessibility. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  18. Kleinberg, J.L. (1997), ‘Authoritative sources in a hyperlinked environment.’ IBM Research Report, RJ10076.Google Scholar
  19. Ludwig, G.S. (1996), Virtual reality: a new world for geographic exploration (
  20. Malecki, E.J. and S.P. Gorman (2001), ‘Maybe the death of distance, but not the end of geography: the Internet as a network.’ in T.R. Leinbach and S.D. Brunn (eds.), Worlds of E-Commerce: Economic, Geographical and Social Dimensions. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, pp. 87–108.Google Scholar
  21. Matrix Information and Directory Services (1999), ‘State of the Internet.’ Matrix Map Quarterly 603 (
  22. Murnion, S. and R.G. Healey (1998), ‘Modelling distance decay effects in Web server information flows.’ Geographical Analysis, 30 (4), 285–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ord, J.K. and A. Getis (1995), ‘Location spatial autocorrelation statistics: distributional issues and an application.’ Geographical Analysis, 27, 287–306.Google Scholar
  24. Pirolli, P., J.E. Pitkow and R. Rao (1998), ‘Silk from a sow’s ear: extracting usable structures from the Web.’ Proceedings for Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (
  25. Shen, Q. (1998), ‘Spatial technologies, accessibility, and the social construction of urban space.’ Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 22, 447–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Sheppard, E., H. Couclelis, S. Graham, J.W. Harrington, and H. Onsrud (1999), ‘Geographies of the information society.’ International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 13 (8), 797–823.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Shiode, N. (1998), ‘Modelling the structure of cyberspace as a fractal network.’ Proceedings of International Conference on Modelling Geographical and Environmental Systems with GIS. Hong Kong, pp. 640–644.Google Scholar
  28. Shiode, N. and M. Batty (2000), ‘Power law distributions in real and virtual worlds.’ CASA Working Paper Series, No. 19 (available from
  29. Shiode, N. and M. Dodge (1999), ‘Visualising the spatial pattern of Internet address space in the United Kingdom.’ In B.M. Gittings (ed.), Innovations in GIS 6: Integrating Information Infrastructure with Geographical Information Technology. Taylor and Francis, London, pp. 105–118.Google Scholar
  30. Shiode, N. and M. Dodge (2000), ‘Spatial analysis on the connectivity of information space,.’Theory and Applications of GIS,8(2), 17–24.Google Scholar
  31. Takeyama, M. (2000), Geographical conceptualizations of smart places (this volume). UCAID (2000), The Internet2 Project (
  32. Vicsek T. and A.S. Szalay (1987), ‘Fractal distribution of galaxies modeled by a cellular-automaton type stochastic process.’ Physical Review Letters, 58 (26), 2818–2821.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Watts, D.J. and S.H. Strogatz (1998), ‘Collective dynamics of “small-world” networks.’ Nature, 393, 440–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wertheim, M. (1999), The Pearly Gates of Cyberspace: A History of Space from Dante to the Internet. W. W. Norton, New York.Google Scholar
  35. Wheeler, D.C. and M.E. O’Kelly (1999), ‘Network topology and city accessibility of the commercial Internet.’ Professional Geographer, 51 (3), 327–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Narushige Shiode
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Advanced Spatial AnalysisUniversity College LondonLondonUK

Personalised recommendations