Rice Leaf Scald: Pathogen Biology and Diversity

  • H. C. Turner
  • R. Black


Rice leaf scald is caused by the fungal pathogen Monographella albescens (Thüm) Parkinson, Sivanesan and Booth (anamorph Gerlachia oryzae (Hashioka and Yokogi) W. Gams). It is a disease that can be found throughout virtually all of the rice growing regions of the world (International Mycological Institute, 1996). Under favourable climatic and cultural conditions, M. albescens can pose a serious threat to rice production and is often ranked in the first three or four fungal constraints for a region, along with blast (Magnaporthe grisea), sheath blight (Rhizoctonia spp.) and brown spot (Helminthosporium oryzae) (Jones et al., 1991; Alam et al.,1985; Cuevas-Perez and Gaona, 1988; Kempf, 1983; Prabhu and Sitarama-Prabhu, 1989). Incidence of infection in an area can reach high levels under favourable conditions, resulting in significant loss of yield, such as the 23.4% yield reduction reported in India by Srinivasan (1981).


International Rice Research Institute Sheath Blight Rice Leaf Rice Accession Necrotic Zone 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abbott, D. C., Lagudah, E. S. and Brown, A. H. D. (1995) Identification of RFLPs flanking a scald resistance gene on barley chromosome 6, Journal of Heredity 86, 152–154.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Alam, M. S., John, V. T. and Zan, K. (1985) Insect pests and diseases of rice in Africa, in Rice improvement in Eastern, Central and Southern Africa (9–19 April 1984, Lusaka, Zambia), International Rice Research Institute, Manila, pp. 67–82.Google Scholar
  3. Bonman, J. M., Mackil, A. O. and Glaszmann, J. C. (1990) Resistance to Gerlachia oryzae in rice, Plant Disease 74, 306–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cuevas-Perez, F. and Gaona, J. S. (1988) Disease selection in rice in Colombia and Central America, International Rice Research Newsletter 13, 14–15.Google Scholar
  5. Das, S. R. (1994) Effect of nitrogenous fertilisers on leaf scald severity of rice, Orissa Journal of Agricultural Research 7, 108–110.Google Scholar
  6. Graner, A. and Tekauz, A. (1996) RFLP mapping in barley of a dominant gene conferring resistance to scald (Rhynchosporium secalis), Theoretical and Applied Genetics 93, 421–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. International Mycological Institute (1996) Monographella albescens (Thum.) V.O. Parkinson, Sivan. C. Booth, Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Map No. 492, edition 3, CAB International, Wallingford, UK.Google Scholar
  8. Jones, M. P., Jeutong, F. and Tchatchoua, J. (1991) Diseases of rice in Cameroon, International Rice Research Newsletter 16, 19–20.Google Scholar
  9. Kempf, D. (1983) Disease control, Lavoura Arrozeira 37, 28–32.Google Scholar
  10. Lodhi, M. A., Ye, G-N., Weeden, N. F. and Reisch, B. (1994) A simple and efficient method for DNA extraction from grapevine cultivars and Vitis species, Plant Molecular Biology Reporter 12, 6–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Misra, A. K. and Mathur, S. C. (1982) Scald susceptibility of cultivars grown at different nitrogen levels, International Rice Research Newsletter 7, 6.Google Scholar
  12. Mondal, A. H., Ahmed, H. U. and Miah, S. A. (1986) Effect of nitrogen on the development of leaf scald disease of rice, Bangladesh Journal of Botany 15, 213–215.Google Scholar
  13. Ou S. H. (1985) Rice Diseases, CAB International, Wallingford, UK.Google Scholar
  14. Ou, S. H., Nuque, F. L. and Vergel de Dios, T. 1. (1978) Perfect stage of Rhynchosporium oryzae and the symptoms of rice leaf scald disease, Plant Disease Reporter 62, 524–528.Google Scholar
  15. Parkinson, V. O. (1980) Cultural characteristics of the rice leaf scald fungus, Rhynchosporium oryzae, Transactions of the British Mycological Society 74, 509–514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Parkinson, V. O., Sivanesan, A. and Booth, C. (1981) The perfect state of the rice leaf scald fungus and the taxonomy of both the perfect and imperfect states, Transactions of the British Mycological society 76, 59–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Prabhu, A. S. and Sitarama-Prabhu, A. (1989) Control of the principal diseases of rice in dry lands, Informe Agropecuario Belo Horizonte 14, 58–63.Google Scholar
  18. Ribeiro, A. S. (1983) Occurrence of leaf scald on irrigated rice in Rio Grande do Sul, Fitopatologia Brasileira 8, 195–199.Google Scholar
  19. Saifulla, M. (1993a) Source of resistance in rice to blast, leaf scald and narrow brown leaf spot, Agricultural Science Digest Karnal 13, 169–170.Google Scholar
  20. Saifulla, M. (1993b). Screening of rice cultures against blast, brown spot and leaf scald diseases. Agricultural Science Digest Karnal 13, 171–172.Google Scholar
  21. Singh, S. A. and Gupta, P. K. S. (1983) Effect of nitrogen fertilisation on the severity of leaf scald of rice caused by Rhynchosporium oryzae, Beitrage zur Tropischen Landwirtschaft and Veterinarmedizin 21, 89–93.Google Scholar
  22. Singh, S. A. and Gupta, P. K. S. (1985) Variation among some isolates of Rhynchosporium oryzae - the rice leaf scald fungus, Indian Phytopathology 38, 535–537.Google Scholar
  23. Srinivasan, S. (1981) Yield losses due to leaf scald disease, International Rice Research Newsletter 6, 15.Google Scholar
  24. Schweizer, G. F., Baumer, M., Daniel, G., Rugel, H. and Roder, M. S. (1995) RFLP markers linked to scald (Rhynchosporium secalis) resistance gene Rh2 in barley, Theoretical and Applied Genetics 90, 920–924.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Turner, H. C. and Black, R. (1996) Rice scald (Monographella albescens): Host-pathogen relationships, pathogenicity and resistance, Final Technical Report R5336/A0208, Chatham Maritime, UK, Natural Resources Institute.Google Scholar
  26. Winslow, M. D. (1992) Silicon, disease resistance, and yield of rice genotypes under upland cultural conditions, Crop Science 32, 1208–1213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Zaimah Bt. Noor Azman, N. (1994) Investigation of pathogenicity of Monographella albescens towards rice and other Gramineae. MSc Thesis, Wye College, University of London.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. C. Turner
    • 1
  • R. Black
    • 1
  1. 1.Natural Resources InstituteUniversity of GreenwichKentUK

Personalised recommendations