On the morning of October 9, 1634, Cardinal Richelieu summoned the Duke of Rohan to Chilly Castle in the vicinity of Paris and informed him that the King was placing him in command of the royal army, then in Lorraine. Richelieu instructed Rohan to keep a watchful eye upon the imperial army led by Charles of Lorraine, but to avoid a battle “insofar as that was possible.” A month later Rohan assembled his troops near Nancy and temporarily set up headquarters at Rambervilliers, a fortified town in the Vosges foothills. Following Richelieu’s instructions, he wrote at once to Bernard de Saxe-Weimar at Mainz, urging him to reject the Emperor’s overtures and to sign a treaty of alliance with Louis XIII. At the end of November, 1634, Rohan divided his army, numbering only five or six thousand men, into three corps and marched into Lorraine to counter a threatened invasion by Duke Charles.’ On December 4 he regrouped his little army near Montozier and captured the imperial depots at Altkirchen in a furious assault which cost the lives of two hundred men. Charles, meanwhile, crossed the Rhine at Breisach and entered Alsace with six thousand men about equally divided between foot and horse. He intended either to march into Lorraine and raise his partisans there or to confront Rohan as soon as Werth and Gallas had reinforced his little army. Boldly deciding to take the offensive, Rohan crossed the Isler river and hurried through the heavy snows towards Charles’ camp. During the night of February 17–18, Charles hastily recrossed the Rhine and sought refuge in Germany.


Municipal Council Winter Quarter French Court French Army Imperial Depot 
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  1. 1.
    Gazette de France no. 54 extraordinaire of May 3, 1635.Google Scholar
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    Henri de Rohan, Mémoires et lettres sur la guerre de la Valteline (2 vols., Geneva, 1758) I, 159–6o.Google Scholar
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    For this campaign consult the Gazette de France no. 96 extraordinaire of July s i, 1635.Google Scholar
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    On the Clausel affair see four letters sent by Rohan on September 3o, 1635 to Louis XIII, Richelieu, Bouthillier, and Bullion, Bibliothèque nationale, Fonds français 5190 f. 37 vol. 39; also “Copie de lettre de Clauzel excripte de Lucerne du 54 septembre 1635.”Google Scholar
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    See Richelieu’s "Instructions pour le Sieur d’Etampes que le roi veut estre tenu en secrete pour arrester M le duc de Rohan faite à Crosne 29 juin 1637," Archives des affaires étrangères Grisons tome IX p. 231–33; also on the same subject an earlier report from d’Etampes to Richelieu dated April 25, 1637. Ibid., p. 203–206.Google Scholar
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    Theodore Tronchin, Harangue funebre faite à l’honneur de Très-Haut et Très Illustré Prince Henry Duc de Rohan (Geneva, 1638). See also Bibliothèque nationale, Fonds français 20965 f. 207–217 and A. Cramer, "Fragment historique sur le duc Henri de Rohan, sur son séjour à Genève et sa sepulture," Bibliothèque universelle de Genève 1844 nouvelle serie LII: 44–75, 231-254.Google Scholar
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© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1966

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  • Jack Alden Clarke

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