Advertisement

The Basis for Holism in Quantum Physics

  • Michael Esfeld
Chapter
  • 181 Downloads
Part of the Synthese Library book series (SYLI, volume 298)

Summary

What does holism in the philosophy of quantum theory mean? On which features of quantum physics is it based? In this chapter, the latter question is tackled. To start with, I sketch out the new conceptual features of quantum theory that are pertinent to quantum holism [7.1]. I then take up the distinction between the principles of separability and local action. Quantum theory violates separability. Einstein’s argument for the incompleteness of quantum theory is reconstructed [7.2]. Going into Bell’s theorem and its philosophical implications, I point out that the discussion on Einstein’s objections to quantum theory can be comprehended along the lines of the Duhem-Quine thesis [7.3].

Keywords

Quantum Theory Local Action Singlet State Hide Variable Local Observable 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Reference

  1. 1.
    For an esaily accessible and reliable exposition of these features, see the papers in Audretsch and Mainzer (1990), in particular Audretsch (1990).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Compare Brown and Redhead (1981).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    For an elaborate argument to this effect, see French and Redhead (1988). See already Margenau (1944), pp. 202–203.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Einstein (1948), pp. 321–322. Translation adopted from Howard (1985), pp. 187–188. See also Einstein (1951), p. 84; Einstein (1953), pp. 6–10, as well as the letter to Schrödinger, 19 June 1935, quoted in Howard (1985), pp. 179–180, and the letter to Born, 18 March 1948, in Born (1969), p. 223. In the letter to Schrödinger, Einstein uses the terms “Trennungsprinzip” and “Trennungshypothese”.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Howard (1989), pp. 225–227. See also Howard (1985), pp. 173, 179; Howard (1997), p. 125.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Compare Howard (1989), p. 246.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Howard (1985), pp. 173, 179; Howard (1989), pp. 226–227; Howard (1997), p. 125.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    See the overview in Redhead (1987), Chapters 3 to 4. Instead of speaking of separability in distinction from local action, Redhead himself introduces the principles of ontological locality and environmental locality. A violation of ontological locality implies a violation of separability, and a violation of environmental locality implies a violation of local action. See Redhead (1987), Chapter 6; Redhead (1995a), pp. 48–51.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    For relativistic qualifications of this statement, see Smith and Weingard (1987). For suggestions to formulate the sufficient condition for an element of reality of Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen in a relativistic context see Ghiradi and Grassi (1994) and Redhead and La Rivière (1997) as well as the reply of Ghiradi and Weber (1997), pp. 103–104, to Redhead and La Rivière (1997).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    See Butterfield (1990) for a detailed analysis of the arguments with one pair and two pairs of observables.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    See Howard (1985), sections 1 and 2.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    See Jammer (1974), pp. 254–255; Cushing (1994), Chapter 9. 1. 2.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kochen and Specker (1967). For a non-technical exposition of the point at issue, see Specker (1960). See furthermore the exposition in Redhead (1987), Chapter 5. The theorem of Kochen and Specker builds on the theorem of Gleason (1957).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    For a general proof of that proposition, see Gisin (1991) and Popescu and Rohrlich (1992).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Compare, for instance, Hellman (1987); Redhead (1987), pp. 98–107.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Greenberger et al. (1990). See also Clifton, Redhead and Butterfield (1991).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mermin (1990). See already Heywood and Redhead (1983).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Events and Processes in the Quantum World“ (1986) (quoted from Shinomy (1993), p. 147) with slight modifications:Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Compare Kronz (1990), pp. 431–441; Butterfield (1989b), pp. 131–135; Butterfield (1992a), pp. 68–77; Jones and Clifton (1993); Berkovitz (1998a). These papers offer a criticism of the claims of Jarrett (1984), pp. 573–578, and Shimony, “Controllable and Uncontrollable Non-Locality” (1984) in Shimony (1993), Chapter 10.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    But see Mittelstaedt (1998b).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    See, for example, Shimony (1989), p. 29; “Controllable and Uncontrollable Non-Locality” (1984) in Shimony (1993), Chapter 10, p. 133.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    The version of a Bell inequality which Aspect uses is the one of Clauser et al. (1969).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    See, in particular, the recent experiment by Tittel et al. (1998) and the experiment planned by Weihs, Weinfurter and Zeilinger (1997).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    But consider the experiment recently reported by Bagley et al. (1997).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Compare the critical remark in Aspect, Dalibard and Roger (1982), p. 1807; Aspect and Grangier (1985), p. 69.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    See already Fine (1982), and, subsequent to the experiment of Aspect, see Marshall, Santos and Selleri (1985); Pascazio (1988); Uchiyama (1995). For a calculation of the efficiency rate that the detectors would have to achieve in order to exclude these models see Mermin (1986).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Compare Mermin (1986), p. 422. See also Maudlin (1994), pp. 175–186.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    For an argument to the effect that we should accept these correlations without explanation, see Fine (1989); van Fraassen (1991), Chapter 10.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Butterfield (1992b). For an examination under which concepts of causality there is causation between the two wings in such an experiment, see Skryms (1984). As to applying a counterfactual conception of causation to the EPR-correlations, see also Laudisa (1999).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    As regards this and other differences between Lewis’ criterion and outcome dependence and an argument for the irrelevance of these differences, see Butterfield (1992b).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Redhead (1987), pp. 102–106; Redhead (1989a), pp. 438–440; Redhead (1989b), pp. 148–151; Redhead (1992). For a criticism of Redhead’s argument, see Cartwright and Jones (1991); Healey (1992); Maudlin (1994), pp. 150–154.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    See “Events and Processes in the Quantum World” (1986) in Shimony (1993), Chapter 11, pp. 151–154. See also Rohrlich (1987), p. 175, and furthermore Hawthrone and Silberstein (1995) who employ the notion of holistic connections between events (pp. 115–117).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    See, in particular, Fleming (1996). For a non-technical description and critical evaluation of this view, see Maudlin (1994) pp. 204–212, 233–234; Maudlin (1996), pp. 298–303. See furthermore the criticism of Dorato (1996), pp. 593–595.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Berkovitz (1998a), pp. 203–219, and Berkovitz (1998b), section 2, argues for a position along these lines.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    See, for example, “Causality without Counterfactuals” in Salmon (1998), essay 16; Kistler (1998) and (1999). See furthermore Dowe (1992), pp. 210–215, and Dowe (1995).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Letter 406 to Bentley, 25 Feb. 1692/3, in Newton (1961), p. 254.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    See, for instance, Shimony (1989), p. 27. See also Jarrett (1989). Compare furthermore the title of Redhead (1 995a): “From Physics to Metaphysics”. Lecture 3 in that book is entitled “Experimental Metaphysics”. That title is intended to be an allusion to Shimony’s claim. See furthermore the conclusion on p. 87.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    See, in particular, Gonseth (1948), pp. 123–124. On the analogy with Quine, compare Gochet (1977), p. 121, and Esfeld (forthcoming c). See also the reference to Gonseth in Specker (1960), p. 239.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Jones and Clifton (1993) construe that term in that way and argue against it.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    For a good overview of proposals for the philosophical impact of Bell’s theorem, see the papers in Cushing and McMullin (1989).Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    See also Fine (1986), pp. 86–90; Hentschel (1987).Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    See, for instance, Chang and Cartwright (1993), pp. 181–189. Popper (1982), pp. 22–27, also contemplates non-local interaction to explain the correlations in a Bell experiment.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Bertlmann’s Socks and the Nature of Reality“ in Bell (1987), p. 154. See furthermore Shimony, Home and Clauser, ”Comment on Bell’s Theory“, in Shimony (1993), p. 168; Kronz (1990), pp. 424–431. See against this objection Shanks (1993).Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Interview in Davies and Brown (1986), p. 47. See furthermore “The Theory of Local Beables” in Bell (1987), p. 61; “Free Variables and Local Causality” in Bell (1987), pp. 100–102; `Bertlmann’s Socks and the Nature of Reality“ in Bell (1987), p. 154. See Kronz (1990), pp. 424–431, against invoking free will in this context.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Compare also Shimony, Home and Clauser, “Comment on Bell’s Theory”, in Shimony (1993), p. 168.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    See furthermore the objection in Maudlin (1994), pp. 63–64, and the recent papers by Kowalski and Placek (1999) and Placek (forthcoming). But see also the suggestion by Hofer-Szabo, Redei and Szabo (1999).Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Price (1996), Chapter 9. Compare also Dowe (1996) and already Costa de Beauregard (1987), Chapter 4. 6. 13.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Esfeld
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.University of KonstanzGermany
  2. 2.University of HertfordshireEngland

Personalised recommendations