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One has to spend money on the additives. Even when the additive concentration needed to produce the desired drag reduction is very low, the consumption of additives can be considerable in case of high flow rates. In an economic study the costs for the additives are part of the variable costs.
Besides, one has to think of how to put the additives into the flow. This requires injection and/or mixing devices. The costs for these devices are part of the fixed costs. If pumps or stirrers are needed, they will consume energy, which again increases the variable costs.
Any additive will harm our environment to some extent. Thus any possible application requires a study of the risks for the environment.
KeywordsWall Shear Stress Polymer Concentration Drag Reduction Surfactant System Chapter VIII
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