Advertisement

I Want to Pretend I’m Eleven Years Younger: Subjective Age and Seniors’ Motives for Vacation Travel

  • Megan Cleaver
  • Thomas E. Muller
Chapter
Part of the Social Indicators Research Series book series (SINS, volume 17)

Abstract

Subjective age-as distinct from chronological age-is a relatively recent area of scientific inquiry within quality-of-life studies. The purpose of this empirical study was to see whether the size of the gap between actual and self-perceived age could be predicted from a knowledge of a senior’s reasons for wanting to travel on vacation, and his or her value priorities and sense of physical well-being. A survey of 356 Australian seniors ranging in age between 56 and 93 yielded data on their subjective age, measured in terms of (a) how old they felt; (b) the activities they would choose to experience or enjoy while on a vacation; and (c) the age they wished to be treated and recognized as-as well as their psychological motives for vacation travel, personal values, and self-rated health. The results of multivariate analyses indicate that the gap between actual age and subjective age is a function of seniors’ particular motives for travel and what they value in life, and, for certain aspects of subjective age, how healthy they feel and their gender.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Age Wave, Inc.: 1990, Marketplace 2000 ( Author, Emeryville, CA ).Google Scholar
  2. Australian Bureau of Statistics: 1993, Disability, Ageing and Carers Australia, 1993 (Catalogue No: 4430. 0 ) ( Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra ).Google Scholar
  3. Barak, B. and L. G. Schiffman: 1981, Cognitive age: a nonchronological age variable’, in Kent B. Monroe (ed.), Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. 8 ( Association for Consumer Research, Ann Arbor, MI ), pp. 602–606.Google Scholar
  4. Beard, J. G. and M. G. Ragheb: 1983, Measuring leisure motivation’, Journal of Leisure Research 15 (3), pp. 219–228.Google Scholar
  5. Blau, Z. S.: 1956, Changes in status and age identification’, American Sociological Review 21, pp. 198–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bultena, G. L. and E. A. Powers: 1978, Denial of aging: Age identification and reference group orientations’, Journal of Gerontology 33, pp. 748–754.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cleaver, M., B. C. Green and T. E. Muller: 2000, Using consumer behavior research to understand the Baby Boomer tourist’, Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research 24 (2), pp. 274–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Day, E., B. Davis, R. Dove and W. French: 1988, Reaching the senior citizen market(s)’, Journal of Advertising Research 27, pp. 23–30.Google Scholar
  9. Duncombe, R.: 1994, How to Prepare for and Better Serve the Seniors Customer Segment. Presentation speaking points dated February 1 ( Tourism Canada, Marketing—U.S.A., Ottawa ).Google Scholar
  10. Feather, N. T.: 1996, Values, deservingness, and attitudes toward high achievers: research on tall poppies’, in C. Seligman, J. M. Olson and M. P. Zanna (eds.), The Psychology of Values: The Ontario Symposium, Vol. 8 (Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, New Jersey ), pp. 215–251.Google Scholar
  11. George, L. K., E. J. Mutran and M. R. Pennybacker: 1980, `The meaning and measurement of age identity’, Experimental Aging Research 6, pp. 283–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gollub, J. and H. Javitz: 1989, Six ways to age’, American Demographics 11, pp. 28–57.Google Scholar
  13. Henderson, K. V., R. E. Goldsmith and L. R. Flynn: 1995, Demographic characteristics of subjective age’, Journal of Social Psychology.Google Scholar
  14. Javalgi, R. G., E. G. Thomas and S. R. Rao: 1992, Consumer behavior in the U.S. pleasure travel marketplace: an analysis of senior and nonsenior travelers’, Journal of Travel Research 30 (Fall), pp. 14–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kahle, L. R.: 1996, Social values and consumer behavior: research from the list of Values’, in C. Seligman, J. M. Olson and M. P. Zanna (eds.), The Psychology of Values: The Ontario Symposium, Vol. 8 (Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, New Jersey ), pp. 135–151.Google Scholar
  16. Markides, K. S. and J. S. Boldt: 1983, `A structural modeling approach to the measurement and meaning of cognitive age’, Journal of Consumer Research 19, pp. 292–301.Google Scholar
  17. McTavish, D. G.: 1971, Perceptions of old people: a review of research methodologies and findings’, The Gerontologist 11, pp. 90–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Moscardo, G., A. M. Morrison, P. L. Pearce, C-T. Lang and J. T. O’Leary: 1996, Understanding vacation destination choice through travel motivation and activities’, Journal of Vacation Marketing 2 (2), pp. 109–122.Google Scholar
  19. Muller, T. E.: 1991, Using personal values to define segments in an international tourism market’, International Marketing Review 8 (1), pp. 57–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Muller, T. E.: 1997, The benevolent society: value and lifestyle changes among middle-aged Baby Boomers’, in L. R. Kahle and L. Chiagouris (eds.), Values, Lifestyles and Psychographics (Advertising and Consumer Psychology Series, Society for Consumer Psychology) ( Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ ), pp. 299–316.Google Scholar
  21. Muller, T. E. and M. Cleaver: 2000, Targeting the CANZUS Baby Boomer explorer and adventurer segments’, Journal of Vacation Marketing 6 (2), pp. 154–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Neugarten, B. L.: 1968, The awareness of middle age’, in B. L. Neugarten (ed.), Middle Age and Aging ( University of Chicago Press, Chicago ), pp. 93–98.Google Scholar
  23. Neugarten, B. L. and D. A. Neugarten: 1986, Changing meanings of age in the aging society’, in A. Pifer and L. Bronte (eds.), Our Aging Society: Paradox and Promise (W. W. Norton, New York ), pp. 33–51.Google Scholar
  24. Pitts, R. E., Jr. and A. G. Woodside: 1986, Personal values and travel decisions’, Journal of Travel Research 25 (Summer), pp. 20–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Presland, A. and A. Matthews: 1998, A golden opportunity’, Seniors Card Tourism Scheme Bulletin, April, 1–2.Google Scholar
  26. Rokeach, M.: 1973, The Nature of Human Values ( The Free Press, New York).Google Scholar
  27. Romsa, G. and M. Blenman: 1989, Vacation patterns of the elderly German’, Annals of Tourism Research 16 (2), pp. 178–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ryan, C. and I. Glendon: 1998, Application of leisure motivation scale to tourism’, Annals of Tourism Research 25 (1), pp. 169–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Schiffman, L.G. and E. Sherman: 991, Value orientations of new-age elderly: the coming of an ageless market’, Journal of Business Research 22, pp. 187–194.Google Scholar
  30. Schwartz, S.: 1996, Value priorities and behavior: applying a theory of integrated value systems’, in C. Seligman, J. M. Olson and M. R Zanna (eds.), The Psychology of Values: The Ontario Symposium, Vol. 8 (Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, New Jersey ), pp. 1–24.Google Scholar
  31. Shih, D.: 1986, VALS as a tool of tourism market research: the Pennsylvania experience’, Journal of Travel Research 24 (4), pp. 2–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sorce, P., P. R. Tyler and L. Loomis: 1989, Lifestyles of older Americans’, Journal of Consumer Marketing 6, pp. 53–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Stephens, N.: 1991, Cognitive age: a useful concept for advertising?’ Journal of Advertising 20, pp. 37–48.Google Scholar
  34. Tongren, H. N.: 1988, Determinant behavior characteristics of older consumers’, Journal of Consumer Affairs 22, pp. 137–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Underhill, L. and F. Caldwell: 1983, “What age do you feel?”... Age perception study’, Journal of Consumer Marketing 1 (Summer), pp. 18–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Vincent, V. C. and G. de los Santos: 1990, Winter texans: two segments of the senior travel market’, Journal of Travel Research 29(Summer), pp. 9–12. Wilkes, R. E.: 1992, A structural modeling approach to the measurement and meaning of cognitive age’, Journal of Consumer Research 19, pp. 292–301.Google Scholar
  37. Wolfe, D. B.: 1990, Serving the Ageless Market (McGraw-Hill, New York). Wylie, R. C.: 1974, The Self Concept (University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, NE ).Google Scholar
  38. Zimmer, Z., R. E. Brayley and M. S. Searle: 1995, Whether to go and where to go: identification of important influences on seniors decisions’ to travel, Journal of Travel Research 33 (3), pp. 3–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Megan Cleaver
    • 1
  • Thomas E. Muller
    • 1
  1. 1.Hagoromo University of International StudiesOsakaJapan

Personalised recommendations