Influence of Scale on the Constitutive Behavior of Sea Ice

  • D. M. Cole
  • J. P. Dempsey
Part of the Solid Mechanics and Its Applications book series (SMIA, volume 94)


The development of physically based constitutive models for sea ice has proven difficult because of a lack of knowledge about the underlying deformation mechanisms, and the lack of unambiguous experimental data at meaningful sizes. However, these shortcomings have been addressed to a measurable extent by the development of effective cyclic loading techniques for laboratory and in-situ experiments, coupled with an improved knowledge of the underlying deformation mechanisms. This progress has made it possible to develop a physically based constitutive model and verify it at meaningful scales. The paper examines the cyclic loading response of in-situ specimens of first-year sea ice ranging in size from 4 × 4 m2 to 30 x 30 m2 in the horizontal plane, along with results from laboratory experiments on field cores. The model predictions compare favorably with the field observations, and an essentially scale-independent constitutive response emerges. The in-situ experiments provide insight regarding the relaxation time distribution, and the anelastic and viscous components of strain. The results from acoustic emission monitoring during the in-situ experiments are also presented.


Dislocation Density Acoustic Emission Crack Mouth Field Core Relaxation Time Distribution 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. M. Cole
    • 1
  • J. P. Dempsey
    • 2
  1. 1.Applied Research DivisionU.S. Army Cold Region Research and Engineering LaboratoryHanoverUSA
  2. 2.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringClarkson UniversityPotsdamUSA

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