Ice Velocity Effects and Ice Force Scaling

  • Andrew Palmer
  • Innes Johnston
Part of the Solid Mechanics and Its Applications book series (SMIA, volume 94)


The paper explores the scaling of velocity effects in ice-structure interaction, and attempts to link it to the underlying mechanics through dimensional analysis. It first examines the well-known example of flow in pipes, and uses that analogy to emphasise that too much should not be expected of scaling, and that any attempt to find a universal scaling law is likely to be doomed to disappointment. It then considers in turn the scaling of velocity effects related to inertia and gravity, to creep, and to structural compliance.


Fracture Toughness Drilling Riser Froude Number Engineer Fracture Mechanics Velocity Effect 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Atkins, A.G. and Caddell, R.M. 1974. The laws of similitude and crack propagation. Int. J. of Mechanical Sciences, 16, 541–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Atkins, A.G. and Mai, Y-W. 1985. Elastic and plastic fracture. Ellis Horwood .Google Scholar
  3. Birkhoff, G. 1960. Hydrodynamics: a study in logic, fact and similitude. Princeton University Press.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  4. Blevins, R. 1977 Flow-induced vibrations. Van Nostrand Reinhold (1977).Google Scholar
  5. Calladine, C.R. 1983. An investigation of impact scaling theory. Structural Crashworthiness (ed. N. Jones and T. Wierzbicki), 169–174.Google Scholar
  6. Chung, H. and Fox, C. Calculation of wave-ice interaction using the Wiener-Hopf technique. To appear.Google Scholar
  7. Dempsey, J.P., Palmer, A.C. and Sodhi, D.S. 2001. High pressure ice zone formation during compressive ice failure. In press. Engineering Fracture Mechanics.Google Scholar
  8. Fox, C. and Squire, V.A. On the oblique reflexion and transmission of ocean waves at shore fast sea ice. 1974. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. of London, 347, 185–218.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fox, C. Scaling laws for flexural waves in floating ice. This volume.Google Scholar
  10. Fox, C. and Chung, H. Harmonic deflections of an infinite floating plate. To appear.Google Scholar
  11. Johnston, I.E. 2000. Ice still know what you did last summer: a review and model of velocity effects on ice-structure interaction. Unpublished MEng dissertation. Cambridge University.Google Scholar
  12. Langhaar, H.L. 1951. Dimensional analysis and theory of models. Chapman &; Hall.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  13. Naudascher, E. and Rockwell, D. 1994. Flow-induced vibrations: an engineering guide, A.A. Balkema.Google Scholar
  14. Palmer, A.C., Goodman, D.J., Ashby, M.F., Evans, A.G., Hutchinson, J.W. and Ponter, A.R.S. 1983. Fracture and its role in determining ice forces on offshore structures, Ann. Glaciology, 4, 216–221.ADSGoogle Scholar
  15. Palmer, A.C. 1991a. Centrifuge modeling of ice and brittle materials. Canadian Geotechnical J., 28, 896–898.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Palmer, A.C. 1991b. Ice forces and ice crushing. Proceedings, Eleventh International Conference on Port and Ocean Engineering under Arctic Conditions, St. John’s, Newfoundland, 1, 11–24.Google Scholar
  17. Ponter, A.R.S, Palmer, A.C., Goodman, D.J., Ashby, M.F., Evans, A.G. and Hutchinson, J.W. 1983. The force exerted by a moving ice sheet on an offshore structure: I: the creep mode, Cold Regions Science and Technology, 8, 109–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Sanderson, T.J.O. 1988. Ice mechanics. Graham &; Trotman.Google Scholar
  19. Sodhi, D.S. 2001. Crushing failure during ice-structure interaction. In press. Engineering Fracture Mechanics.Google Scholar
  20. Timco, G.W. 1979. The mechanical and morphological properties of doped ice. Proceedings, Fifth Int. Conf. on Port and Ocean Engineering under Arctic Conditions, Trondheim, 1, 719–739.Google Scholar
  21. Woisin, C. 1968. Eine Untersuchung der Ähnlichkeitsgesetze bei Stossschäden, besonders Schiffskollisionen und Kollisionsmodeliversuchen. Schiff und Hafen, 11, 740–747.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrew Palmer
    • 1
  • Innes Johnston
    • 1
  1. 1.Cambridge University Engineering DepartmentCambridgeEngland

Personalised recommendations