Advertisement

Explanation pp 207-229 | Cite as

Explaining Religious Utterances by Taking Seriously Super-Naturalist (and Naturalist) Claims

Chapter
  • 273 Downloads
Part of the Synthese Library book series (SYLI, volume 302)

Abstract

This chapter offers some observations on the intelligibility of religious utterances, coming from the direction of the psychological study of religion. In offering criteria and çontexts for intelligibility, we will mainly rely onrel statements by religious believers. I should warn the reader at the outset that this chapter is written from the perspective of the psychology of religion, an academic tradition which is by no means widely known. The psychology of religion offers observations and explications of the phenomena of religion using the terminology and conceptual analysis of psychological theories. It studies religion both directly and indirectly, by observing religious believers and by studying their beliefs. The questions which empirical studies of religion ask and what we find today in the writings of psychologists about religion constitute really two separate traditions representing two kinds of questions:
  1. 1.

    Questions about the content and origins of religious beliefs, leading to the psychology of religion, which focuses on the psychological explanations of religious phenomena [Beit-Hallahmi 1996];

     
  2. 2.

    A social psychology of religiosity, studying the social and psychological correlates and context of religiosity ([Argyle and Beit-Hallahmi 1975]; [Beit-Hallahmi 1989]; [Beit-Hallahmi and Argyle 1997]).

     

Keywords

Religious Belief Religious Tradition Religious Experience Religious Behavior Religious Believer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [Adomo et al. 1950]
    Adomo, T.W., Frenkel-Brunswik, E., Levinson, D. J.,and Sanforg, R. N. (1950). The Authoritarian Personality. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  2. [Adorno et al. 1950]
    Adorno, T. W., Frenkel-Brunswik, E., Levinson, D. J., and Sanford, R. N.(1950). The Authoritarian Personality. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  3. [Allport 1950]
    Ailport, G. W. (1950) G. W. (1950). The Individual and His Religion: A Psychological Interpretation. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  4. [Argyle and Beit-Hallahmi 1975]
    Argyle, M. and Beit-Hallahmi, B. (1975). The social psychology ofreligion. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  5. [Ayer 1964]
    Ayer, A.J. (1964). Language, Truth and Logic. London: Gollancz.Google Scholar
  6. [Beit-Hallahmi 1989]
    Beit-Hallahmi, B. (1989). Prolegomena to the Psychological Study ofReligion. Lewisburg, PA: Bucknell University Press.Google Scholar
  7. [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]
    Beit-Hallahmi, B. (1992). Despair and Deliverance: Private Salvation in Contemporary Israel, Albany, NY: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
  8. [Beit-Hallahmi 1996]
    Beit-Hallahmi, B. (1996). Psychoanalytic Studies ofReligion. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  9. [Beit-Hallahmi and Argyle 1997]
    Beit-Hallahmi, B. and Argyle, M. (1997). The Psychology of Religious Behavior, Belief and Experience. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  10. [Blake 1905]
    Blake, W. (1905). Poems ofWilliam Blake. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  11. [Braithwaite 1955]
    Braithwaite, R.B. (1955). An Empiricist’s View of the Nature of Religious Belief. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  12. [Bruce 1990]
    Bruce, S. (1990). A House Divided: Protestantism, Schism, and Secularization. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  13. [Budd 1977]
    Budd, S. (1977). Varieties of Unbelief. Atheists and Agnostics in English Society, 1850–1960. London: Heinemann.Google Scholar
  14. [Camap 1967]
    Carnap, R. (1967). Logical Syntax ofLanguage. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  15. [Cattell 193 8]
    Cattell, R. B. (1938). Psychology and the Religious Quest. London: Thomas Nelson and Sons.Google Scholar
  16. [Danto 1961]
    Danto, A. C. (1961). Faith, language, and religious experience: a dialogue. In S. Hook (ed.) Religious Experience and Truth. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  17. [Easton and Guddat 1967]
    Easton, L. and Guddat, K. (eds.) (1967). The Writings of Young Marx. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  18. [Fenn 1978]
    Fenn, R. K. (1978). Toward a Theory ofSecularization. Storrs, CT: Society for the Scientific Study of Religion.Google Scholar
  19. [Frazer 1951 ]
    Frazer, J. G. (1951). The Golden Bough. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  20. [Fromm 1950]
    Fromm, E. (1950). Psychoanalysis and Religion. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  21. [Frye 1982]
    Frye, N. (1982). The Great Code. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  22. [Gallup 1980]
    Gallup, G. H. (1980). Index to International Public Opinion. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  23. [Geertz 1964]
    Geertz, C. (1964). Ideology as a cultural system. In D. E. Apter (ed.) Ideology and Discontent. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  24. [Harrington 1983]
    Harrington, M. (1983). The Politics at God ’s Funeral: The Spiritual Crisis of Western Civilization. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
  25. [Hick 1990]
    Hick, J. (1990). Philosophy ofReligion. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  26. [Homans 1989]
    Homans, P. (1989). The Ability to Mourn: Disillusionment and the Social Origins ofPsychoanalysis. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  27. [Huizinga 1955]
    Huizinga, J. (1955). Homo Ludens. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  28. [Hunt 1972]
    Hunt, R.A. (1972). Mythological-symbolic religious commitment The LAM scale. Journal for the Scientific Study ofReligion, 11, 42–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. [Inkeles and Smith 1974]
    Inkeles, A. and Smith, D. H. (1974). Becoming Modern: Individual Change in Six Developing Countries. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  30. [James 1897]
    James, W. ([ 1897] 1956). The Will to Believe. New York: Dover Publications.Google Scholar
  31. [Jablonsky et al. 1994]
    Jablonsky, P. , Grzymala-Mosczynska, H. and Van der Lans, J. (1994). Interpretation of religious language among Poles and Dutch: Cognitive competence or cultural construction? Polish Psychological Bulletin, 25: 283–302.Google Scholar
  32. [Jablonsky et al. 1998]
    Jablonsky, P., Van der Lans, J. and Hermans, C. (1998). Metaphor theories and religious language understanding. Metaphor and Symbol, 13: 287–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. [Jacob 1934]
    Jacob, M. (1934). Vie de Max Jacob. Nouvelle Revue Francaise, Vol. 42.Google Scholar
  34. [Jakobson 1960]
    Jakobson, R. (1960). Closing statement: Linguistics and poetics. In T. A. Sebeok (ed.) Style In Language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  35. [Kantor 1969]
    Kantor, J. R. (1969). The Scientific Evolution ofPsychology. Chicago: The Principia Press.Google Scholar
  36. [Klaf 1961]
    Klaf, F. C. and Hamilton, J. G. (1961). Schizophrenia - a hundred years ago and today. Journal ofMental Science, 107: 819–827.Google Scholar
  37. [Kurtz 1989]
    Kurtz, P. (1989). Eupraxophy: Living Without Religion.Buttalo: Prometheus.Google Scholar
  38. [Lamont 1935/1990]
    Lamont, C. (1935/1990). The Illusion ofImmortality. New York: Half-Moon Foundation.Google Scholar
  39. [Lamont 1949]
    Lamont, C. (1949). The Philosophy ofHumanism. New York: Philosophical Library.Google Scholar
  40. [Liebman 1983]
    Liebman, C. S. (1983). Extremism as a religious norm. Journal for the Scientific Study ofReligion, 22: 75–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. [Loomis 1948]
    Loomis, C. G. (1948). White Magic: an Introduction to the Folklore of Christian Legend. Cambridge MA: The Medieval Academy of America.Google Scholar
  42. [Mackie 1982]
    Mackie, J. L. (1982). The Miracle of Theism. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  43. [Martin 1978]
    Martin, D. (1978). A General Theory ofSecularization. New York: Harper.Google Scholar
  44. [McGuire 1997]
    McGuire, M. (1997). Religion: The Social Context. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co.Google Scholar
  45. [Needham 1972]
    Needham, R. (1972). Belief, Language, and Experience. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  46. [Phillips 1976]
    Phillips, D. Z. (1976). Religion Without Explanation. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
  47. [Pickering 1968]
    Pickering, W. S. F. (1968). Religion - a leisure time pursuit. In D. Martin (ed.) A Sociological Yearbook ofReligion In Britain I. London: SCM Press.Google Scholar
  48. [Pinker 1997]
    Pinker, S. (1997). How The Mind Works. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  49. [Proudfoot 1985]
    Proudfoot, W. (1985). Religious Experience. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  50. [Ramsey 1957]
    Ramsey, I. (1957). Religious Language: An Empirical Placing of Theological Phrases. London: SCM Press.Google Scholar
  51. [Renan 1927]
    Renan, E. (1927). The Life ofJesus. New York: Modern Library.Google Scholar
  52. [Schweitzer 1975]
    Schweitzer, A. (1975). The Quest of the Historical Jesus. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  53. [Segal 1989]
    Segal, R.A. (1989). Religion and the Social Sciences. Ithaca, NY; Scholars Press.Google Scholar
  54. [Simpson 1981]
    Simpson, J. (1981). Rationalized motifs in urban legends. Folklore, 92: 203–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. [Soskice 1985]
    Soskice, J. M. (1985). Metaphor and Religious Language. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  56. [Stone 1991]
    Stone, L. (1991). Road to Divorce: England1530–1987. New York : Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  57. [Thouless 1971]
    Thouless, R. H. (1971). An Intmduction to the Psychology of Religion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  58. [Turner 1983]
    Turner, B. (1983). Religion and Social Theory: A Materialist Perspective. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press.Google Scholar
  59. [Van der Lans and Jablonsky 1994]
    Van der Lans, J. and Jablonsky, P. (1994). Religious language interpretation: A social psychological approach. Archive fuer Religionpsychologie, 21: 208–219.Google Scholar
  60. [Wallace 1966]
    Wallace, A. F. C. (1966). Religion: An Anthropological View. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  61. [Wells 1988]
    Wells, G. F. (1988). The Historical Evidence forJesus. Buffalo: Prometheus Books.Google Scholar
  62. [Wilson 1958]
    Wilson, J. (1958). Language and Christian Belief. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  63. [Wittgenstein 1958]
    Wittgenstein, L. (1958). Philosophical Investigations. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2001

Authors and Affiliations

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations