Acceleration and Release of Particles from the Corona
From above consideration it appears that existing models of particle acceleration at the Sun are still far from complete and self-consistent. In particular, a question remains if there are the continuous acceleration and/or long-time trapping of energetic particles in the extended coronal structures? In this context, a new paradigm raised of particle acceleration in different sources at or near the Sun — in solar flares, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), coronal and/or interplanetary shocks, etc. This idea has been developed in a series of recent studies (see, e.g., Cliver, 1996; Kahler, 1996; Reames, 1996, and references therein). It turned out to be very fruitful for understanding many energetic solar phenomena. Nevertheless, a number of important unanswered questions remain, and the most keen of them is: Where and how solar particles are accelerated to very high energies up to ~ 100 GeV? Therefore, it is necessary to discuss some new approaches to the problem, in particular, a possibility of multi-step (multi-source) particle acceleration in the extended coronal structures (loops, streamers, CMEs, etc.).
KeywordsInterplanetary Magnetic Field Neutron Monitor Solar Energetic Particle Event Relativistic Proton Solar Maximum Mission
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