Solar Cosmic Rays — Object and Tool for Space Research
Over the years the solar particle occurrences have been referred to by a number of descriptive names such as solar cosmic ray (SCR) events, solar proton events (SPE), solar particle events (SPE), ground level enhancements (GLE), and polar cap absorption (PCA) events (e.g., Dorman and Miroshnichenko, 1968; Pomerantz and Duggal, 1974; Sakurai, 1974; Dodson et al., 1975; Duggal, 1979; Miroshnichenko, 1980, 1986, 1992a,b; Akinyan et al, 1983; Miroshnichenko and Petrov, 1985; Bazilevskaya et al., 1986, 1990; Smart and Shea, 1989; Shea, 1990; Simpson, 1990; Flückiger, 1991; Heckman et al., 1992; Shea and Smart, 1990, 1993a,b; Dorman and Venkatesan, 1993; Stoker, 1995; Sladkova et al, 1998). These terms are still in use. Since the advent of the space era, qualitatively new data has been obtained from particle sensors on near-Earth satellites and on space probes throughout the heliosphere. Coupled with improved balloon and ground-based instrumentation, those data have greatly increased our understanding of the SCR dynamics, i.e. the processes of generation of solar energetic particles (SEP) and their propagation in the interplanetary medium.
KeywordsSolar Flare Interplanetary Magnetic Field Interplanetary Space Interplanetary Medium Solar Proton Event
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