Energy planning is a general term that is applied to a variety of issues. It can address, for example, the design of energy supply and utilization in new buildings; it can also address municipal planning of district heat supply and the structure of heating systems. In national energy planning, the focus is on political targets such as a diversification of energy sources or environmental targets such as a reduction in acidification of soil and lakes. International bodies — e.g., the World Energy Council (WEC), the International Energy Agency (IEA), and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) — investigate the future of our energy system on a multinational or even global level (e.g., IPCC, 1990; Houghton and Callander, 1992; or WEC, 1992). Many research institutions and scientists focus their research on the long-term future of the global energy system (see e.g., Häfele, 1981; Darmstadter and Landsberg, 1983; Guilmot et al., 1986; Goldemberg et al., 1988; Manne and Richels, 1992).
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- 1.The energy systems model MARKAL (Fishbone et al., 1983) is applied by lEA member countries for concerted analyses in special topics. The current focus is on the global warming issue.Google Scholar
- 2.For this analysis, an extension of the MESSAGE model (see Messner and Strubegger, 1995) was used while expanding its capability by modeling investment variables as integer decision variables.Google Scholar
- 3.All prices referred to are in constant 1990 US$.Google Scholar