Geometric Responses in Neogene Sediments of Offshore New Zealand: Simulated as Products of Changes in Depositional Base Level Driven by Eustasy and/or Tectonics

  • Christopher G. St. C. Kendall
  • Gregory L. Whittle
  • Craig S. Fulthorpe
  • Phil Moore
  • T. Don Hickey
  • Robert Cannon
  • Douglas Hellmann
Part of the Coastal Systems and Continental Margins book series (CSCM, volume 1)

Abstract

The stratigraphicsequences that occur throughout the sedimentary record are the products of independent variations in eustasy, tectonic movement and rates of sedimentation. The computer program Sedpak, which graphically simulates the sequence stratigraphicfill of basins by changing sea-level position, tectonic movement and sedimentation rate as independent variables, was used to test interpretations of the evolution of Neogene sequences in the offshore Canterbury Basin, eastern South Island, New Zealand. The simulation results for the Canterbury Basin suggest that sequence boundaries were created by changes in depositional base level (i.e. sea level), which in turn were driven by variations in the rate of eustatic and/or tectonic change. Varying the rate of sediment supply in the simulations did not produce sequence-bounding unconformities, but greatly influenced sequence stacking patterns.

Keywords

Tectonic Movement Sediment Supply Petroleum Geologist Accommodation Space Tectonic Subsidence 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. AIGNER, T., DOYLE, M. and LAWRENCE, D. T., 1987, Isostatic Controls on Carbonate Platform Development: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 71, p. 524.Google Scholar
  2. AIGNER, T., DOYLE, M. and LAWRENCE, D. T., EPTING, M., VAN VLIET, A., 1989, Quantitative Modeling of Carbonate Platforms: Some Examples; in P. D. Crevello, J. L. Wilson, J.F. Sarg, and J. F. Read, eds., Controls on carbonate platform and basin development, Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special Publication, v. 44, p. 27–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. ARMENTROUT, JOHN M. and LINDA S. ROUCH, 1994, Computer Simulation of Scismically-Defined Depositional Sequences; Pliocene and Pleistocene Geometry’s and Rates, Offshore Texas: Program of the Annual Meeting of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, v. 3, p. 95.Google Scholar
  4. BAUM, G. R. and VAIL P. R., 1988, Sequence stratigraphie concepts applied to Paleocene outcrops, Gulf and Atlantic Basins, in Wilgus, C. K., Hastings, B. S., Kendall, C. G. St. C., Posamentier, H. W., Ross, C. A., and Van Wagoner, J. C., eds., Sea-Level Changes — an Integrated Approach, Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special publication, v. 42, p. 309–328.Google Scholar
  5. BLOOM, A. L., BROECKER, W. S., CHAPPELL, J. M. A., MATTHEWS, R. K. and MESOLELLA, K. J., 1974, Quaternary sea level fluctuations on a tectonic coast: new 231Th/234U dates from the Huon Peninsula, New Guinea: Quaternary Research, v. 4, p. 185–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. BOWMAN, SCOT A., 1994, Carbonate Sedimentation Processes in PHIL: Program of the Annual Meeting of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, p. 78.Google Scholar
  7. CHAPPELL, J. and SHACKLETON, N. J., 1986, Oxygen isotopes and sea level: Nature, v. 324, p. 137–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. CHAPPELL, J. and VEEH, H. H., 1978, Late Quaternary tectonic movements and sea level changes at Timor and at Atauro Island: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 89, p. 356–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. CHAPPELL, J., 1974, Geology of coral terraces, Huon Peninsula, New Guinea: a study of Quaternary tectonic movements and sea level changes: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 85, p. 553–570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. CHEONG D. K., WHITTLE, G. L., KENDALL, C. G. ST. C., CANNON, R. L., MOORE, P. D. and KIM S. H., 1993, Simulation of the Tertiary sedimentary section of the Southern East Sea (Sea of Japan) and its application to oil exploration: Program of Annual Meeting of American Association of Petroleum Geologists, p. 84.Google Scholar
  11. CHRISTIE-BLICK, N., 1991, Onlap, offlap, and the origin of unconformity-bounded depositional sequences, Marine Geology, v. 97, p. 35–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. DONOVAN, A. D., BAUM, G. R., BLECHSCHMIDT, G. L., LOUTIT, T. S., PFLUM, C. G. and VAIL, R. R., Sequence stratigraphic setting of the Cretaceous Tertiary Boundary in Central Alabama: in Wilgus, C. K., Hastings, B. S., Kendall, C. G. St. C., Posamentier, H. W., Ross, C. A., and Van Wagoner, J. C., eds., Sea-Level Changes — an Integrated Approach, Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special publication, 42, p. 299–308.Google Scholar
  13. EBERLI, GREGOR P., WHITTLE, G. L., KENDALL, C. G. ST. C., CANNON, R. L. and MOORE, P. D., 1994, Testing a Scismic interpretation of the great Bahama bank with a computer simulation: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 78, p. 981–1004.Google Scholar
  14. FAIRBANKS, R. G. and MATTHEWS, R. K., 1978, The Marine Oxygen Isotope Record in Pleistocene Corals, Barbados, West Indies: Quaternary Research, v. 10, p. 181–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. FROHLICH, C. and MATTHEWS, R. K., 1991, Strata-Various: a flexible Fortran program for dynamic foreward modeling of stratigraphic: in Franseen, E. K., Watney, W. L., Kendall, C. G. St. C., Ross, W., eds., Sedimentary Modeling: Computer Simulations and Methods for Improved Parameter Definition, Kansas Geological Survey Bull. 233, p. 449–461.Google Scholar
  16. FULTHORPE, C. S., 1991, Geological Controls on Scismic Sequence Resolution: Geology, v. 19, p. 61–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. FULTHORPE, C. S. and CARTER, R. M., 1989, Test of Scismic Sequence Methodology on a Southern Hemisphere Passive Margin: the Canterbury Basin, New Zealand: Marine and Petroleum Geology, v. 6, p. 348–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. FULTHORPE, C. S. and CARTER, R. M., 1991, Continental-Shelf Progradation by Sediment-Drift Accretion: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 103, p. 300–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. GREENLEE, S. M. and MOORE T. C., 1988, Recognition and late pretation of depositional sequences and calculation of sea-level changes from stratigraphic data — offshore New Jersey and Alabama: in Wilgus, C. K., Hastings, B. S., Kendall, C. G. St. C., Posamentier, H. W., Ross, C. A., and Van Wagoner, J. C., eds., Sea-Level Changes — an Integrated Approach, Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special publication, 42, p. 329–356.Google Scholar
  20. HandFORD, C. R. and LOUCKS, R. G., 1994, Carbonate depositional sequences and systems tracts — responses of carbonate platforms to relative sea-level changes: in R.G. Loucks and J.F.R. Sarg, eds., Carbonate Sequence Stratigraphy, American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 57, p. 3–42.Google Scholar
  21. HAQ, B., HARDENBOL, J. and VAIL, P. R., 1987, Chronology of fluctuating sea levels since the Triassic (250 million years to present), Science, no. 235, p. 1156–1167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. HELLand-HANSEN, W., KENDALL, C., LERCHE, I. and NAKAYAMA, K., 1988, A Simulation of Continental Basin Margin Sedimentation in Response to Crustal Movements, Eustatic Sea-level Change and Sediment Accumulation Rates: Journal of Math Geology, v. 20, p. 777–802.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. HELLand-HANSEN, W., STEEL, R., NAKAYAMA, K. and KENDALL, C. G. ST. C., 1989, Review and Computer Modeling of the Brent Group Stratigraphy, in Whately, M. K. G. and Pickering, K. T., eds., Deltas: Sites and Traps for Fossil Fuels, Geological Society Special Publication no. 41, p. 237–252.Google Scholar
  24. JERVEY, M. T., 1988, Quantitative Geological Modeling of Siliciclastic Rock Sequences and their Scismic Expression: in Wilgus, C. K., Hastings, B. S., Kendall, C. G. St. C., Posamentier, H. W., Ross, C. A., and Van Wagoner, J. C., eds., Sea-Level Changes — an Integrated Approach, Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special publication, 42, p. 47–70.Google Scholar
  25. KENDALL, C. G. ST. C., HARRIS, P. M., STROBEL, J., CANNON, R., MOORE, P., BEZDEK, J. and BISWAS, G., 1989b, Simulation of the West Texas, New Mexican Permian Guadalupian Basin Margin — A Response to Eustatic Change, An Example of Sedpak: Abstracts of the 28th International Geological Congress, Washington D.C., U.S.A., v.2, p. 2–174.Google Scholar
  26. KENDALL, C. G. ST. C., LERCHE, I. and NAKAYAMA, K., 1986, Simulation of Continental Margin Sedimentation: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 70, p. 606.Google Scholar
  27. KENDALL, C. G. ST. C., MOORE, P., STROBEL, J. S., CANNON, R. L., PERLMUTTER, M., BEZDEK, J. and BISWAS, G., 1991b, Simulation of the Sedimentary Fill of Basins: in Franseen, E. K., Watney, W. L., Kendall, C. G. St. C., Ross, W., eds., Sedimentary Modeling: Computer Simulations and Methods for Improved Parameter Definition, Kansas Geological Survey Bull. 233, p. 9–30.Google Scholar
  28. KENDALL, C. G. ST. C., STROBEL, J. S., CANNON, R. L., BEZDEK, J. and BISWAS, G., 1991a, The Simulation of the Sedimentary Fill of Basins: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 96, p. 6911–6929.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. KENDALL, C. G. ST. C., STROBEL, J., JIE, T., MOORE, P., CANNON, R., BEZDEK, J. and BISWAS, G., 1989a, Simulation of the west Texas, New Mexican Permian Guadalupian Basin Margin — A Response to Eustatic Change, An Example of Sedpak: in Harris, P. M. and Grover, G. A., eds., Subsurface and Outcrop Examination of the Capitan Shelf Margin, northern Delaware Basin Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Core Workshop No. 13, p. 423–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. KENDALL, CHRISTOPHER G. ST. C., MOORE, P., WHITTLE, G. L. and CANNON, R. L., 1992, A Challenge: Is it possible to determine eustasy and does it matter?: in Dott, R. H. ed., Eustasy: The Historical Ups and Downs of a Major Concept: Boulder, Colorado, Geological Society of America Memoir 180, p.93–107.Google Scholar
  31. KOLLA, V. and PERLMUTTER, M. A., 1993, Timining of sedimentation on the Mississippi Fan: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 77, n. 7, p. 1129–1141.Google Scholar
  32. LAWERENCE, D. T., DOYLE, M. and AIGNER, T., 1989, Calibration of Stratigraphic Models in Exploration Settings: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 73, n. 3, p. 379–380.Google Scholar
  33. LAWRENCE, D. T, DOYLE, M. and AIGNER, T., 1990, Stratigraphic Simulation of Sedimentary Basins: Concepts and Calibrations: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 74, p. 273–295.Google Scholar
  34. LOUTIT T. S., HARDENBOL, J., VAIL, P. R. and BAUM, G. R., 1988, Condensed Sections: The Key to Age Determination and Correlation of Continental Margin Sequences: in Wilgus, C. K., Hastings, B. S., Kendall, C. G. St. C., Posamentier, H. W., Ross, C. A., and Van Wagoner, J. C., eds., Sea-Level Changes — an Integrated Approach, Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special publication 42, p. 183 – 216.Google Scholar
  35. MATTHEWS, R. K., 1986, Carbonate diagenesis-equilibrium of sedimentary mineralogy to the subaerial environment, Coral Cap of Barbados, West Indies: Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 38, p. 110–119.Google Scholar
  36. MESOLELLA, K. J., MATTHEWS, R. K., BROECKER, W. S. and THURBER, D. L., 1969. The astronomical theory of climatic change: Barbados data: Journal of Geology, 77: 250–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. MESOLELLA, K. J., SEALY, H. A. and MATTHEWS, R. K., 1970. Facies geometries within Pleistocene reefs of Barbados, West Indies: American Association of Petroleum Geology Bulletin 54: 1899–1917.Google Scholar
  38. NAKAYAMA, K. and KENDALL, C. G. ST. C., 1989, A Simulation of Basin Margin Sedimentation to Infer Geometry and Lithofacies- A Carbonate Example: in Taira, A. and Masuda, F., eds., Sedimentary Facies in the Active Plate Margin, Terra Scientific Publishing Company (TERRAPUB), Tokyo, p. 17–31.Google Scholar
  39. POSAMENTIER, H. W. and VAIL, P. R., 1988, Eustatic Controls on Clastic Deposition II — Sequence and Systems Tract Models: in Sea- Level Changes, an integrated approach: An Integrated Approach, Wilgus, C. K., Hastings, B., Kendall, C. G. St. C., Posamentier, H., Ross, C., Van Wagoner, J. C., eds., Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, Special Publication 42, p. 125–154.Google Scholar
  40. POSAMENTIER, H. W., JERVEY, M. T. and VAIL, P. R., 1988, Eustatic Controls on Clastic Deposition I- Conceptual Framework: in Sea- Level Changes: An Integrated Approach, Wilgus, C. K., Hastings, B., Kendall, C. G. St. C., Posamentier, H., Ross, C., Van Wagoner, J. C., eds., Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, Special Publication 42, p. 109–124.Google Scholar
  41. RANKEY, EUGENE C., 1994, Data Sim: A Relational Database for Analysis of Strati-graphic/Sedimentologic Computer Models, Program of the Annual Meeting of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, v. 3, p. 241.Google Scholar
  42. ROSS, W. C., B. A. HALLIWELL, J. A. MAY and D. E. WATTS, 1994, Integrated Sequence Stratigraphic Analysis: An Example from the Mesozoic/Cenozoic of Australia, Program of the Annual Meeting of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, v. 3, p. 246.Google Scholar
  43. SARG, J. F., 1988, Carbonate sequence stratigraphy: in Wilgus, C. K., Hastings, B. S., Kendall, C. G. St. C., Posamentier, H. W., Ross, C. A., and Van Wagoner, J. C., eds., Sea-Level Changes — an Integrated Approach, Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special publication, 42, p. 155–182.Google Scholar
  44. SCATURO, D. M., STROBEL, J. S., KENDALL, C. G. ST. C., WENDTE J. C., BISWAS, G., BEZDEK, J. and CANNON, R., 1989, Judy Creek: A Case Study of a Two-Dimensional Sediment Deposition Simulation: in Wilson, J. L., Crevello, P., and Read, J. F.„ eds., Controls on Carbonate Platform and Basin Development, Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special publication 44, p. 64–76.Google Scholar
  45. STEINEN, R. P., HARRIS, R. S. and MATTHEWS, R. H., 1973. Eustatic low stand of sea level between 125,000 and 105,000 B.P. Evidence from the subsurface of Barbados, West Indies: Geological Society of America Bulletin, 84: 63–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. STROBEL, J., CANNON, R., KENDALL, C. G. ST. C., BISWAS, G. and BEZDEK, J., 1989a, Interactive (Sedpak) Simulation Of Clastic and Carbonate Sediments In Shelf To Basin Settings: Computers and Geoscience v. 15, p. 1279–1290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. STROBEL, J., KENDALL, C. G. ST. C., BISWAS, G., BEZDEK, J. C., and CANNON, R., 1987, Preliminary Description of the Program SEDFIL with Carbonate Module Added: in D. C. Peters and S. A. Krajewski, eds., Proceedings of Denver GeoTech Computer-Aided Methods and Modeling in Geology and Engineering, p. 341–349.Google Scholar
  48. STROBEL, J., SOEWITO, F., KENDALL, C. G. ST. C., BISWAS, G., BEZDEK, J. and CANNON, R., 1989b, Interactive Simulation (Sedpak) of Clastic and Carbonate Sediments In Shelf To Basin Settings: in T. A. Cross (ed.), Quantitative Dynamic Stratigraphy, p. 433–444.Google Scholar
  49. SULLIVAN N. M., WHITTLE, G. L., KENDALL, C. G. ST. C., LOWRIE, A., CANNON, R. L., MOORE, P. D., HELLMANN, D. R. and SPAINHOUR, K., 1993, Variations explained between the sequence stratigraphy of east and west offshore Louisiana using a sedimentary simulation: Program of Annual Meeting of American Association of Petroleum Geologists, p. 187.Google Scholar
  50. TANG, J., KENDALL, C. G. ST. C., STROBEL, J., CANNON, R., MOORE, P., BEZDEK, J. and BISWAS, G., 1989, Simulation of the Sedimentary Fill of the Sichuan Basin by Upper Permian Coals and Carbonate Sequences- An Example of the use of Sedpak: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 73, n. 3, p. 418.Google Scholar
  51. VAIL, P. R. and TODD, R. G., 1981, Northern North Sea Jurassic Unconformities, Chronostratigraphy and Sea Level Changes from Scismic Stratigraphy: in L. V. Illing and G. D. Hobson (Eds.), Proceeding of the Petroleum Geology of the Continental Shelf of NW Europe Conf., March 4–6, 1980, London, Heydon and Son Ltd., p. 216–235.Google Scholar
  52. VAIL, P. R., MITCHUM JR. R. M., TODD, R. G., WIDMIER, J. M., THOMPSON III S., Sangree, J. B., Bubb, J. N. and Hatlelid, W. G., 1977, Scismic Stratigraphy and Global Changes of Sea-level: in C. E. Payton (ed.), Scismic Stratigraphy — Applications to Hydrocarbon Exploration, American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 26; p. 49–212.Google Scholar
  53. VAN WAGONER, J. C., MITCHUM, R. M., CAMPION, K. M. and RAHMANIAN, V. D., 1990, Siliciclastic Sequence Stratigraphy in Well Logs, Cores and Outcrops: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Methods in Exploration Series, No. 7, American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 55 p.Google Scholar
  54. VAN WAGONER, J. C., MITCHUM, R. M., POSAMENTIER, H. W. and VAIL, P. R., 1987 Key Definitions of Scismic Stratigraphy: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Atlas of Scismic Stratigraphy, v. 1, p. 11–14.Google Scholar
  55. VAN WAGONER, J. C., POSAMENTIER, H. W., MITCHUM, R. M., VAIL, P. R., SARG, J. F. and HARDENBOL, J., 1988, An Overview of the Fundamentals of Sequence Stratigraphy and Key Definitions: in Wilgus, C. K., Hastings, B. S., Kendall, C. G. St. C., Posamentier, H. W., Ross, C. A., and Van Wagoner, J. C., eds., Sea-Level Changes — an Integrated Approach, Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special publication, 42, p. 39–45.Google Scholar
  56. WARD, W. T. and CHAPPELL, J., 1975. Geology of coral terraces, Huon Peninsula, New Guinea: A study of Quaternary tectonic movements and sea level changes: discussion and reply. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 86: 1482–1486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. WHITTLE, G. L., KENDALL, C. G. ST. C., FOGARTY, M. A. and LOWRIE, A., 1992, Paleotectonic restoration and simulation modeling applicable to the Louisiana offshore: Gulf Coast Association of Geological Society Transactions, v. XLII, p. 429–444.Google Scholar
  58. WHITTLE, G. L., KENDALL, C. G. ST. C., SCOTT R. W., MOORE, P. D. and CANNON, R. L., 1993a, Simulation of the evolution of a Lower Cretaceous ramp to rim carbonate margin in Texas and Louisiana: Program of Annual Meeting of American Association of Petroleum Geologists, p. 200.Google Scholar
  59. WHITTLE, G. L., KENDALL, C. G. ST. C., SULLIVAN N. M., FOGARTY, M. A., KROTZER C., LOWRIE, A., CANNON, R. L., MOORE, P. D., HELLMANN, D. R. and SPAINHOUR, K., 1993b, Stratigraphic modeling of two contrasting Gulf Coast Basins: Program of Annual Meeting of American Association Of Petroleum Geologists, p. 200.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christopher G. St. C. Kendall
  • Gregory L. Whittle
  • Craig S. Fulthorpe
  • Phil Moore
  • T. Don Hickey
  • Robert Cannon
  • Douglas Hellmann

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations