Advertisement

Sea-Level Changes, Carbonate Production and Platform Architecture: The Llucmajor Platform, Mallorca, Spain

  • Luis Pomar
  • William C. Ward
Part of the Coastal Systems and Continental Margins book series (CSCM, volume 1)

Abstract

The stratal architecture of the Upper Miocene coral-reef platform of southwestern Mallorca, Spain, is controlled by high-frequency changes in accommodation and sediment supply (carbonate production), in the absence of significant compaction and subsidence during progradation. In this example, carbonate production and accommodation changes are not independent factors and both are, in turn, controlled by the changes of sea-level and morphology of the depositional profile of the basin floor.

The basic unit of accretion is the sigmoid which stacks in ever larger accretional units: sets, cosets, and megasets of sigmoids. All of these accretional units have the same characteristics in terms of stratal geometries, facies architecture and bounding surfaces, and may be viewed as depositional sequences reflecting different hierarchical orders of sea-level fluctuations. The stratal and facies architecture in sigmoids, sets, cosets, and megasets, reflect higher production of carbonate during sea-level rises and lower production during sea-level Stillstands and sea-level falls. Their stacking patterns allow definition of four reef-platform systems tracts: low-stillstand, aggrading, high-stillstand and offlapping.

On larger scale, progradation of carbonate reef complex is extensive (up to 20 km) toward the south, where the basin was shallow, but progradation is much less (less than 2 km) toward the west, along the margin of the relatively deeper Palma Basin. This results from the steepness and overall morphology of the depositional profile within the context of fluctuating sea level that controls carbonate production. Progradation of the reefal systems is more significant during sea-level falls on a gentle depositional profile. The subsequent sea-level rise creates a wide lagoon which enhances carbonate production and downslope shedding of sediment. A steeper topographic gradient allows only minor reef progradation during sea-level falls and, subsequently, a small lagoonal area is created during flooding of the platform, leading to proportionally small carbonate production and downslope shedding. This example illustrates how a reefal carbonate platform responds to high-frequency sea-level changes and how it differs from siliciclastic systems.

Keywords

System Tract Carbonate Production Depositional Sequence Reef Complex Transgressive System Tract 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. ABBOTT, S. T. and CARTER, R. M., 1994, The sequence architecture of mid-Pleistocene (c. 1.1–0.4 Ma) cyclothems from New Zealand: facies development during a period of orbital control on sea-level cyclicity, in de Boer, P. L., and Smith, D. G., ed., Orbital forcing and cyclic sequences: International Association of Sedimentologists Special Publication No. 19, p. 367–394.Google Scholar
  2. áLVARO, M., BARNOLAS, A., DEL OLMO, P., RAMIREZ DEL POZO, J., and SIMÓ, A., 1984, El Neógeno de Mallorca: Caracterización sedimentológica y bioestratigráfica: Boletín Geológico y Minero, v. 95, p. 3–25.Google Scholar
  3. BARÓN, A. and POMAR, L., 1985, Stratigraphic Correlation Tables: area 2c Balearic Depression, in Steininger, F. F., Senes, J., Kleemann, K., and Régi, F., ed., Neogene of the Mediterranean, Tethys and Paratethys: Institute of Paleontology, University of Vienna, p. 17.Google Scholar
  4. BATES, R. L. and JACKSON, J. A., 1987, Glossary of Geology: Alexandria, Virginia, American Geological Institute, 788 p.Google Scholar
  5. BIZON, G., BIZON, J. J., BOURROUILH, R. and MASSA, D., 1973, Prùsùnce aux iles Balùares (Mùd. Occ.) de sediments “messiniens” dùpossùs dans une mer ouverte, ú salinitù normale: Comt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, v. 277 (12), p. 985–988.Google Scholar
  6. BOSSCHER, H., 1992, Growth potential of coral reefs and carbonate platforms : Utrecht, Vrije Universiteit, 160 p.Google Scholar
  7. DEAN, W. E. and GARDNER, J. V., 1986, Milankovitch cycles in Neogene deep-sea sediment: Paleoceanography, v. 1, p. 539–553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. DRISCOLL, N. W., WEISSEL, J. K., KARNER, G. D. and MOUNTAIN, G. S., 1991, Stratigraphie response of a carbonate platform to relative sea level changes: Broken Ridge, southeast Indian Ocean: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 75, p. 808–831.Google Scholar
  9. EBERLI, G. P. and GINSBURG, R. N., 1987, Segmentation and coalescence of Cenozoic carbonate platforms, northwestern Great Bahama Bank: Geology, v. 15, p. 75–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. EBERLI, G. P. and GINSBURG, R. N., 1988, Aggrading and prograding Cenozoic seaways, northwest Great Bahama Bank, in Bally, A. W., ed., Atlas of Scismic Stratigraphy: Tulsa, OK, American Association of Petroleum Geologists Studies in Geology No. 27, p. 97–103.Google Scholar
  11. EBERLI, G. P. and GINSBURG, R. N., 1989, Cenozoic progradation of northwestern Great Bahama Bank, a record of lateral platform growth and sea-level fluctuations, in Crevello, P. D., Wilson, J. L., Sarg, J. F., and Read, J. F., ed., Controls on Carbonate Platform and Basin Development: Tulsa, OK, Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special Publication, No. 44, p. 339–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. EBERLI, G. P., MELIM, L. A. and SWART, P. K., 1994, Distribution of sedimentary and diagenetic faciès in prograding seismic sequences (Great Bahama Bank, Bahamas): implications for petrophysical properties and fluid flow, in American Association of Petroleum Geologists Hedberg Research Conference. Application of sequence stratigraphy to oil field development: Paris, France.Google Scholar
  13. FONTBOTÉ, J. M., OBRADOR, A. and POMAR, L., 1983, Islas Baleares, in Geologia de Espa/a, T. II (Libro Jubilar J.M. Rios): Madrid, Comisión Nacional de Geologia e Instituto Geologico y Minero de Espaa a, p. 343–391.Google Scholar
  14. GLASER, K. S. and DROXLER, A. W., 1991, High Production and Highstand Shedding from Deeply Submerged Carbonate Banks, Northern Nicaragua Rise: Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 61 (1), p. 128–142.Google Scholar
  15. GRAMMER, G. M., 1991, Formation and evolution of Quaternary carbonate foreslopes, Tongue of the Ocean, Bahamas : University of Miami, 314 p.Google Scholar
  16. GRAMMER, G. M. and GINSBURG, R. N., 1992, Highstand versus lowstand deposition on carbonate platform margins: insight from Quaternary foreslopes in the Bahamas: Marine geology, v. 103, p. 125–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. HANDFORD, C. R. and LOUCKS, R. G., 1993, Carbonate depositional sequences and systems tracts — Responses of carbonate platforms to relative sea-level changes, in Loucks, and Sarg, R., ed., Recent Advances and Applications of Carbonate Sequence Stratigraphy: Tulsa, American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir No. 57, p. 3–41.Google Scholar
  18. HAQ, B. U., HARDENBOL, J. and VAIL, P. R., 1987, Chronology of fluctuating sea levels since the Triassic: Science, v. 235, p. 1156–1167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. HUNT, D. and TUCKER, M. E., 1992, Stranded parasequences and the forced regressive wedge systems tract: deposition during base-level fall: Sedimentary Geology, v. 81, p. 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. HUNT, D. and TUCKER, M. E., 1993, Sequence stratigraphy of carbonate shelves with an example from mid-Cretaceous (Urgonian) of southeast France, in Posamentier, H. W., Summerhayes, C. P., Haq, B. U., and Allen, G. P., ed., Sequence stratigraphy and Facies Associations: International Association of Sedimentologists Special Publication No. 18, p. 307–341.Google Scholar
  21. HUNT, D. and TUCKER, M. E., 1995, Stranded parasequences and the forced regressive wedge systems tract: deposition during base-level fall — reply: Sedimentary Geology, v. 95, p. 147–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. JERVEY, M. T, 1988, Quantitative geological modelling of siliciclastic rock sequences and their seismic expression, in Wilgus, C. K., Hastings, B. S., Kendall, C. G. S., Posamentier, H. W., Ross, C. A., and Van Wagoner, J. C., ed., Sea-Level Changes: an Integrated Approach: Tulsa, Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special Publication, No. 42, p. 47–69.Google Scholar
  23. KENTER, J. A. M., 1990, Carbonate platform flanks: slope angle and sediment fabric: Sedimentology, v. 37, p. 777–794.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. KOLLA, V., POSAMENTIER, H. W. and EICHENSEER, H., 1995, Stranded parasequences and the forced regressive wedge systems tract: deposition during base-level fall — a discussion: Sedimentary Geology, v. 95, p. 139–145.Google Scholar
  25. MITCHUM, R. M. and VAN WAGONER, J. C., 1991, High-frequency sequences and their stacking patterns: sequence Stratigraphic evidence of high-frequency eustatic cycles: Sedimentary Geology, v. 70, p. 131–160.Google Scholar
  26. POMAR, L., 1991, Reef geometries, erosion surfaces and high-frequency sea-level changes, upper Miocene reef complex, Mallorca, Spain: Sedimentology, v. 38, p. 243–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. POMAR, L., 1993, High-resolution sequence stratigraphy in prograding carbonates: application to seismic interpretation, in Loucks, and Sarg, R., ed., Recent Advances and Applications of Carbonate Sequence Stratigraphy: Tulsa, American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir No. 57, p. 389–407.Google Scholar
  28. POMAR, L., FORNOS, J. J. and RODRIGUEZ-PEREA, A., 1985, Reef and Shallow Carbonate facies of the Upper Miocene of Mallorca, in Milu, M. D., and Roseli, J., ed., 6th. European Regional Meeting, Excursion Guidebook: Lleida, Spain, International Association of Sedimentologists, p. 493–518.Google Scholar
  29. POMAR, L. and WARD, W. C., 1994, Response of a Late Miocene Mediterranean reef platform to high-frequency eustasy: Geology, v. 22, p. 131–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. POSAMENTIER, H. W., ALLEN, G. P. and JAMES, D. P., 1992, High Resolution Sequence Stratigraphy — the East Coulee Delta, Alberta: Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 62 (2), p. 310–317.Google Scholar
  31. POSAMENTIER, H. W., ALLEN, G. P., JAMES, D. P. and TESSON, M., 1992, Forced regressions in a sequence stratigraphie framework: concepts, examples, and exploration significance: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 76, p. 1687–1709.Google Scholar
  32. POSAMENTIER, H. W., JERVEY, M. T. and SARG, J. F., 1988, Eustatic controls on clastic deposition II — sequence and systems tract models, in Wilgus, C. K., Hastings, B. S., Kendall, C. G. S., Posamentier, H. W., Ross, C. A., and Van Wagoner, J. C., ed., Sea-Level Changes: an Integrated Approach: Tulsa, Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special Publication, No. 42, p. 125–154.Google Scholar
  33. POSAMENTIER, H. W., JERVEY, M. T and VAIL, P. R., 1988, Eustatic controls on clastic deposition I — conceptual framework, in Wilgus, C. K., Hastings, B. S., Kendall, C. G. S., Posamentier, H. W., Ross, C. A., and Van Wagoner, J. C., ed., Sea-Level Changes: an Integrated Approach: Tulsa, Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special Publication, No. 42, p. 109–124.Google Scholar
  34. RAMOS-GUERRERO, E., RODRIGUEZ-PEREA, A., SABAT, F. and SERRA-KIEL, J., 1989, Cenozoic tectosedimentary evolution of Mallorca island: Geodinamica Acta, v. 3 (1), p. 53–72.Google Scholar
  35. SARG, J. F., 1988, Carbonate Sequence Stratigraphy, in Wilgus, C. K., Hastings, B. S., Kendall, C. G. S., Posamentier, H. W., Ross, C. A., and Van Wagoner, J. C., ed., Sea-level Changes: An Integrated Approach: Tulsa, Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special Publication, No. 42, p. 155–182.Google Scholar
  36. SCHLAGER, W., 1991, Depositional bias and environmental change — important factors in sequence stratigraphy: Sedimentary Geology, v. 70, p. 109–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. SCHLAGER, W., 1992, Sedimentology and Sequence Stratigraphy of Reefs and Carbonate Platforms : Tulsa, American Association of Petroleum Geologists Continuing Education Course Note Series No 34, 71 p.Google Scholar
  38. SCHLAGER, W., 1993, Accommodation and supply — a dual control on stratigraphic sequences: Sedimentary Geology, v. 86, p. 111–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. SCHLAGER, W., REHMER, J. G. and DROXLER, A., 1994, Highstand shedding of carbonate platforms: Journal of Sedimentary Research, v. B64 (3), p. 270–281.Google Scholar
  40. SONNENFELD, M. D., 1993, Anatomy of Offlap: Upper San Andres Formation (Permian, Guadalupian), Last Chance Canyon, Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico, in Adams, J. W., Austin, G., Barker, J., Hawley, J. W., and Love, D. W., ed., Carlsbad Region, New Mexico and West Texas: New Mexico Geological Society, 44th Field Conference: p. 195–203.Google Scholar
  41. SONNENFELD, M. D. and CROSS, T. A., 1993, Volumetric partitioning and facies differentiation within the Permian Upper San Andres Formation of Last Chance Canyon, Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico, in Loucks, R. G., and Sarg, F. J., ed., Carbonate Sequence Stratigraphy — Recent Developments and Applications: Tulsa, American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir No. 57, p. 435–474.Google Scholar
  42. TYRRELL, W. W. and DAVIS, R. G., 1989, Miocene Carbonate Shelf Margin, Bali-Rores Sea, Indonesia, in Bally, A. W., ed., Atlas of Scismic Stratigraphy: Tulsa, OK, American Association of Petroleum Geologists Studies in Geology No. 27, p. 174–179.Google Scholar
  43. VAIL, P. R., AUDEMARD, F., BOWMAN, S. A., EISNER, P. N. and PEREZ-CRUZ, C., 1991, The stratigraphic signatures of tectonics, eustasy and sedimentation — an overview, in Einsele, G., Ricken, W., and Scilacher, A., ed., Cycles and Events in Stratigraphy: Springer-Verlag, p. 617–659.Google Scholar
  44. VAIL, P. R., MITCHUM, J. R.M., TODD, R. G., WILDMIER, J. M., THOMPSON, S. I., SANGREE, J. B., BUBB, J. N. and HATFIELD, W. G., 1977, Scismic stratigraphy and global changes of sea level, in Payton, C. E., ed., Scismic Stratigraphy — Applications to Hydrocarbon Exploration: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir No. 26, p. 49–212.Google Scholar
  45. VAN WAGONER, J. C., MITCHUM, R. M. J., CAMPION, K. M. and RAHMANIAN, V. D., 1990, Siliciclastic sequence Stratigraphy in well logs, cores and outcrops, in : American Association of Petroleum Geologists Methods in Exploration Series, No. 7, p. 45 pp.Google Scholar
  46. VAN WAGONER, J. C., Posamentier, H. W., MITCHUM, R. M. J., VAIL, P. R., SARG, F. J., LOUTIT, T T. and HARDENBOL, J., 1988, An overview of the fundamentals of sequence stratigraphy and key definitions, in Wilgus, C. K., Hastings, B. S., Kendall, C. G. S. C., Posamentier, H. W., Ross, C. A., and Van Wagoner, J. C., ed., Sea-Level Changes: an Integrated Approach: Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special Publication, No 42, p. 39–45.Google Scholar
  47. VAZQUEZ, A., ZAMARREO, I., REYES, E. and LINARES, J., 1991, Late Quaternary climatic changes on the southwestern Balearic slope (Western Mediterranean): isotopic, faunal, and mineralogical relationships: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology,v. 81, p. 215–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luis Pomar
  • William C. Ward

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations