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Mechanical Engineering in the Netherlands in the Nineteenth Century: Technology without a Professional Community

  • H. Lintsen
  • G. van Hooff
  • G. Verbong
Chapter
  • 113 Downloads
Part of the Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science book series (BSPS, volume 144)

Abstract

Technology was an essential factor in the dramatic changes in society which can be summed up as the Industrial Revolution. On the one hand, it caused transformations in society, but on the other hand technology was greatly influenced by society itself. This interaction can be shown through the ways in which people dealt with technology and the knowledge on which technical applications are based. For ages, technology had been the work of craftsmen who had learned their trade in the workshop. The major change in the nineteenth century was the rise of professional groups, like engineers, that placed new requirements on the education of technicians. Practical training was considered insufficient and would have to be replaced by a more formal education at a technical school. This process has since been referred to by sociologists and historians of technology as the transition from a “shop culture” to a “school culture”.1 At the same time, the nature of technological knowledge changed from an entirely experience-based knowledge to an increasingly scientific one. During the nineteenth century, technology and science became more and more intertwined, a phenomenon which is generally called the scientification of technology.

Keywords

Nineteenth Century Mechanical Engineering Engineering Industry Professional Community Technical Science 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Notes

  1. 1.
    M. A. Calvert, The Mechanical Engineer in America, 1830–1910. Professional Cultures in Conflict (Baltimore, 1967).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    P. Lundgreen, ‘Engineering Education in Europe and the U.S.A., 1750–1930: The Rise to Dominance of School Culture and the Engineering Professions’, Annals of Science 47(1990), pp. 33–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    H.W. Lintsen, Ingenieurs in Nederland in de negentiende eeuw. Een streven naar erkenning en macht (′s-Gravenhage, 1980).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    This table is based on the list of companies given in: W.H.P.M. van Hooff, De Nederlandse machinefabrieken 1825–1914 (Amsterdam, 1990). This states, for each engineering company (as far as known), the person in control of the factory during a certain period, his social origins and his training or education.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    W.H.P.M. van Hooff, In het rijk van de Nederlandse Vulcanus. De Nederlandse machinenijverheid 1825–1914. Een historische bedrijfsstakverkenning (Amsterdam, 1990).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    For a more detailed survey of the Dutch mechanical engineers, we refer to W.H.P.M. van Hooff, In het rijk van de Nederlandse Vulcanus. Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    R. Steenaard, Stoom en stoomwezen, 1824–1850, with Annex, 46 pp. (Thesis, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, 1989).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Van Hooff, In het rijk van de Nederlandse Vulcanus, p. 191.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ibid., Ch. 2.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Steenaard, Stoomwezen, pp. 47–50.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    A. den Ouden, De perfectionering van de stoommachine voor fabrieksgebruik (Eindhoven, n.d.), p. 2.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    For example: Rees’s Manufacturing Industry (1819–1820), in particular pp. 84 ff. ‘Rules for Determining the Proportions of Atmospheric Engines’ .Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    P.A. Kroes, ‘The Role of Design in Engineering Theories’, this volume.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tijdschrift van de Maatschappij voor Nijverheid (1842), p. 470.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
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  16. 16.
    G.J. Verdam, Grondslagen der toegepaste werktuigkunst, in six parts, with atlas (Groningen, 1829–1837).Google Scholar
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    J.P. Delprat, Beginselen der werktuigkunde voor de kadetten der artillerie, genie en van de waterstaat, the third edition appeared in 1861 (Breda, 1842).Google Scholar
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    It is possible to add to this category: H.W. Schroeder van der Kolk, Het behoud van arbeidsvermogen bij de stoomwerktuigen (Leiden, 1861). The author comments on Pambour’s and other’s theories. However, the publication relates to a presentation to the Natuurkundig Gezelschap te Utrecht [the Physical Society of Utrecht] and was not directly addressed to mechanical engineers or designers of steam engines.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Handelingen der Staten-Generaal. Bijlage en Register, 1868–1869. Report on the state of the Higher, Intermediate and Lower Education 1867/1868, p. 1412.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    A. Huet, De Delftsche Akademie en de Polytechnische School; Verspreide schetsen en studiën (Purmerend, 1880).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    A. Huet, Stoombemaling van polders en boezems (′s-Gravenhage, 1885).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    J. Weisbach, Handleiding tot de kennis van het stoomwerktuig, translated by G. Kuyper (Amsterdam, 1870). This textbook goes into detail about the theories of Pambour and others. Other foreign publications translated into Dutch: Chr. Cremer, Het stoomwerktuig (Rotterdam, n.d.); simple handbook for direct technical training, G. Pipijn and A. van den Steen, Leerboek der werktuigkunde, stoomketels & stoommachines met praktisch onderricht over het vervaardigen en behandelen der gewone stoomwerktuigen (Gent, 1876); textbook for direct teaching at technical colleges (The fourth ed. appeared in 1897); J. Boume, Leer- en handboek der stoomwerktuigkunde (Nieuwediep, 1858); practical handbook for technical operatives and companies, Bernoulli’s Vademecum, practisch handboek voor berekeningen, dagelijks voorkomende in de bouw- en werktuigkunde, originally translated by J.G. van Gendt jr., revised by G.J.W. de Jongh (Amsterdam, 1884).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Des Ingenieurs Taschenbuch (Berlin, 1902), p. 822.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    E. Layton, The Revolt of the Engineers; Social Responsibility and the American Engineering Profession (Cleveland, 1971); H.W. Lintsen, Ingenieurs in Nederland; Google Scholar
  25. 24a.
    C. Disco, Made in Delft. Professional Engineering in The Netherlands 1880–1940, Ph.D. thesis (Amsterdam, 1990).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Lintsen
    • 1
  • G. van Hooff
    • 1
  • G. Verbong
    • 1
  1. 1.Eindhoven University of TechnologyThe Netherlands

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