Advertisement

Failure: Damage Initiation and Progression

  • O. O. Ochoa
  • J. N. Reddy
Chapter
  • 565 Downloads
Part of the Solid Mechanics and Its Applications book series (SMIA, volume 7)

Abstract

Under service conditions, laminated composite structures develop matrix cracks, fiber-matrix debonds, fiber fractures, and delaminations. These effects, which cause permanent loss of integrity within the laminate, are termed damage, and they result in the loss of stiffness and strength of the material. As a result, the load-carrying capacity and the service life of the structure is reduced. When a structure or a component ceases to carry out its intended function, it is said to have ‘failed’. For example, the microcracks observed within a layer constitute damage. As these microcracks grow in size and number, they coalesce and develop into debonds, resulting in a reduction of the load-carrying capacity of the laminate. In order to determine the load carrying capacity and service life of a composite structure, it is necessary to predict the initiation and evolution of damage.

Keywords

Failure Criterion Composite Laminate Transverse Crack Fiber Fracture Matrix Crack 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Masters, J. E., and Reifsnider, K. L., “An Investigation of Cumulative Damage Development in Quasi-Isotropic Graphite/Epoxy Laminates,” Damage in Composite Materials, STP 775, K. L. Reifsnider, Ed., American Society for Testing Materials, Philadelphia, pp. 40–62 (1982).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Highsmith, A. L., and Reifsnider, K. L., “Stiffness-Reduction Mechanisms in Composite Laminates,” Damage in Composite Materials, STP 775, K. L. Reifsnider, Ed., American Society for Testing Materials, Philadelphia, pp. 103–117 (1982).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Talreja, R., “Residual Stiffness Properties of Cracked Composite Laminates,” Proceedings of Sixth International Conference on Fracture, ICF6, New Delhi, December 4–10, 1984.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Talreja, R., “Transverse Cracking and Stiffness Reduction in Composite Laminates,” Journal of Composite Materials, 19, pp. 355–375 (1985).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hashin, Z., “Analysis of Cracked Laminates: A Variational Approach,” Mechanics of Materials, 4, pp. 121–136 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lee, J. W., and Daniel, I. M., “Progressive Transverse Cracking of Crossply Composite Laminates,” Journal of Composite Materials, 24, pp. 1225–1243 (1990).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Daniel, I. M., and Lee, J. W., “Damage Development in Composite Laminates Under Monotonie Loading,” Journal of Composites Technology & Research, 12 (2), pp. 98–102 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    O’Brien, T. K., “Characterization of Delamination Onset and Growth in a Composite Laminate,” Damage in Composite Materials, K. L. Reifsnider (Ed.), STP 775, American Society for Testing Materials, Philadelphia, pp. 140–167 (1982).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    O’Brien, T. K., “Analysis of Local Delaminations and Their Influence on Composite Laminate Behavior,” Delamination and Debonding of Materials, STP 877, W. S. Johnson, Ed., American Society for Testing Materials, Philadelphia, pp. 282–297 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    O’Brien, T. K., “The Effect of Delamination on the Tensile Strength of Un-notched, Quasi-Isotropic, Graphite/Epoxy Laminates,” Proceedings of the SESA/JSME Joint Conference on Experimental Mechanics, Part I, Honolulu, Hawaii, (SESA, Brookfield Center, CT), pp. 236–243, (1982).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chan, W. S., and Ochoa, O. O., “Delamination Characterization of Laminates Under Tension, Bending and Torsion Loads,” Computational Mechanics, 6, pp. 393–405 (1990).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ochoa, O. O., and Chan, W. S., “Assessment of Free Edge Due to Torsion,” Proceedings of the 2nd American Society of Composites, Sept. 22–24, 1987, Newark, Delaware, pp. 469–478 (1987).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Reifsnider, K. L., Henneke, E. G., II, and Stinchcomb, W. W., “Delamination in Quasi-Isotropic Graphite-Epoxy Laminates,” Composite Materials Testing and Design (Fourth Conference), ASTM STP 617, American Society for Testing and Materials, pp. 93–105 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ochoa, O. O., Aikens, Q. Y., and Engblom, J. J., “Thermomechanical Response Characterization of High Temperature Structures,” Report No. RF6386, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, March 1991.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ochoa, O. O., and Moore, A. J., “A Parametric Study of Strain Energy Release Rates of Compression Members,” Journal of Composite Structures, 11, pp. 151–163 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ochoa, O. O., and Roschke, P., “Damage Tolerance of Composite Tubes Under Compressive Loading,” Journal of Composite Structures, 19, pp. 1–14 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Reddy, J. N., and Pandey, A. K., “A First-Ply Failure Analysis of Composite Laminates,” Computers and Structures, 25 (3), pp. 371–93 (1987).zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Reddy, Y. S. N., and Reddy, J. N., “Linear and Non-Linear Failure Analysis of Composite Laminates with Transverse Shear,” Composites Science and Technology, 44, pp. 227–255 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Robbins, D. H., Reddy, Y. S. N., and Reddy, J. N., “Analysis of Interlaminar Stresses and Failures Using a Layer-Wise Laminate Theory,” Local Mechanics Concepts for Composite Materials, J. N. Reddy and K. L. Reifsnider (eds.), Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany, 1992.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sandhu, R. S., “A Survey of Failure Theories of Isotropic and Anisotropic Materials,” Technical Report, AFFDL-TR-72–71.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Tsai, S. W., “A Survey of Macroscopic Failure Criteria for Composite Materials,” Technical Report, AFWAL-TR-84–4025.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Soni, S. R., “A Comparative Study of Failure Envelops in Composite Laminates,” Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, 2 (1), pp. 34–42 (1983).MathSciNetADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hashin, Z., “Failure Criteria for Unidirectional Composites,” Journal of Applied Mechanics, 47, pp. 329–334 (1980).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Soni, S. R., “A New Look at Commonly Used Failure Theories in Composite Laminates,” AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC 24th Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference, p. 171 (1983).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Engelstad, S. P., Reddy, J. N., and Knight, Jr., N. F., “Postbuckling Response and Failure Prediction of Flat Rectangular Grpahite-Epoxy Plates Loaded in Axial Compression,” AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC 32nd Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference, April 8–10, 1991, Baltimore, MD, paper No. AIAA-91–0910-CP.Google Scholar

Additional Papers on Failure and Progressive Failure Studies

  1. 26.
    Petit, P. H., and Waddoups, M. E., “A Method of Predicting the Nonlinear Behavior of Laminated Composites,” Journal of Composite Materials, 3 (Feb. 1969).Google Scholar
  2. 27.
    Sandhu, R. S., Sendeckyj, G. P., and Gallo, R. L., “Modeling of the Failure Process in Notched Laminates,” in Mechanics of Composite Materials Recent Advances (Proceedings of the IUTAM Symposium held at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, August 16–19, 1982), Z. Hashin and C. T. Herakovich (eds.), Pergamon Press, New York, pp. 179–189 (1982).Google Scholar
  3. 28.
    Tsai, S. W., and Azzi, V. D., “Strength of Laminated Composite Materials,” AIAA Journal, 4 (2), pp. 296–301 (Feb. 1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 29.
    Chang, F. K., and Chang, K. Y., “A Progressive Damage Model for Laminated Composites Containing Stress Concentrations,” Journal of Composite Materials, 21, (Sept. 1987).Google Scholar
  5. 30.
    Chang, F. K., Lessard, L., and Tang, J. M., “Compression Response of Laminated Composites Containing an Open Hole,” SAMPE Quarterly 19, (July 1988).Google Scholar
  6. 31.
    Hahn, H. T., and Tsai, S. W., “Nonlinear Elastic Behavior of Unidirectional Composite Laminates,” Journal of Composite Materials, 7, (July 1973).Google Scholar
  7. 32.
    Yamada, S. E., and Sun, C. T., “Failure Strength of Nonlinearly Elastic Composite Laminates Containing a Pin Loaded Hole,” Journal of Composite Materials, 18, (July 1984).Google Scholar
  8. 33.
    Tan, S. C, “A Progressive Failure Model of Composite Laminates Containing Openings,” Journal of Composite Materials, 25, pp. 556–577 (1991).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • O. O. Ochoa
    • 1
  • J. N. Reddy
    • 1
  1. 1.Texas A&M UniversityTexasUSA

Personalised recommendations