Analogy and Similarity in Scientific Reasoning

  • Ilkka Niiniluoto
Part of the Synthese Library book series (SYLI, volume 197)


Analogical reasoning is a traditional mode of argument which has been applied in a variety of contexts — such as rhetorics, ethics, politics, mythology, metaphysics, theology, mathematics, logic, physics, biology, medicine, psychology, jurisprudence, engineering, and artificial intelligence. Within its everyday and scientific applications, analogy has been employed for different purposes — such as heuristics, justification, and problem solving. For these reasons, it cannot be expected that there is only one “correct” formal system for representing the “valid” patterns of analogical inference.


Scientific Reasoning Analogical Reasoning Inductive Logic Similarity Influence Partial Identity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Achinstein, P. (1971), Law and Explanation, Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Alchourrón, C. E. and Bulygin, E. (1971), Normative Systems, Wien: Springer-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bochenski, I. M. (1961), A History of Formal Logic, Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press, (Chelsea Publ. Co., New York, 1971.)Google Scholar
  4. Bodgan, R. (ed.) (1976), Local Induction, Dordrecht: D. Reidel.Google Scholar
  5. Carnap, R. (1950), Logical Foundations of Probability, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, (2nd ed. 1962).Google Scholar
  6. Carnap, R. (1952), The Continuum of Inductive Methods, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  7. Carnap, R. (1980), ‘A basic system of inductive logic, Part 2’, in Jeffrey (1980), pp. 7–155.Google Scholar
  8. Carnap, R. and Stegmüller, W. (1959), Induktive Logik und Wahrscheinlichkeit, Wien: Springer-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Costantini, D. (1983), ‘Analogy by similarity’, Erkenntnis 20, 103–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hempel, C. G. (1965), Aspects of Scientific Explanation, New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  11. Hesse, M. (1963), Models and Analogies in Science, Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press.Google Scholar
  12. Hesse, M. (1964), ‘Analogy and confirmation theory’, Philosophy of Science 31, 319–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hilpinen, R. (1973), ‘Carnap’s new system of inductive logic’, Synthese 25, 307–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hintikka, J. (1966), ‘A two-dimensional continuum of inductive methods’, in Hintikka, J. and Suppes, P. (eds.), Aspects of Inductive Logic, Amsterdam: North-Holland, pp. 113–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Holland, J., Holyoak, K., Nisbett, R., and Thagard, P. (1986), Induction: Processes of Inference, Learning and Discovery, Cambridge, Mass: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  16. Jeffrey, R. (ed.), (1980), Studies in Inductive Logic and Probability, vol. II, Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  17. Kant, I. (1974), Logic, New York: Bobbs-Merrill.Google Scholar
  18. Keynes, J. M. (1921), A Treatise on Probability, London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  19. Klug, U. (1966), Juristische Logik, Berlin: (Dritte Auflage), Springer-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kuipers, T. (1978), Studies in Inductive Probability and Rational Expectation, Dordrecht: D. Reidel.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kuipers, T. (1984a), ‘Two types of inductive analogy by similarity’, Erkenntnis 21, 63–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kuipers, T. (1984b), ‘Inductive analogy in Carnapian spirit’, in Asquith, P. and Kitcher, P. (eds.), PSA 1984, vol. I, Philosophy of Science Association, East Lansing, pp. 157–167.Google Scholar
  23. Kuipers, T. (1984c), ‘What remains of Carnap’s programme today?’, in Agazzi, E. and Costantini, D. (eds.), Probability, Statistics, and Inductive Logic, special issue of Epistemologia VII, pp. 121–15 2.Google Scholar
  24. Mill, J. S. (1906), A System of Logic, London: Longmans, Green, and Co., (original edition 1843).Google Scholar
  25. Niiniluoto, I. (1977), ‘On a K-dimensional system of inductive logic’, in Suppe, F. and Asquith, P. (eds.), PSA 1976, Philosophy of Science Association, East Lansing, pp. 425–447.Google Scholar
  26. Niiniluoto, I. (1980), ‘Analogy, transitivity, and the confirmation of theories’, in Cohen, L. J. and Hesse, M. (eds.), Applications of Inductive Logic, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 218–234.Google Scholar
  27. Niiniluoto, I. (1981), ‘Analogy and inductive logic’, Erkenntnis 16, 1–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Niiniluoto, I. (1983a), ‘Inductive logic as a methodological research programme’, Scientia: Logic in the 20th Century, Milano, pp. 77–100.Google Scholar
  29. Niiniluoto, I. (1983b), ‘Analogy and legal reasoning’, in Kangas, U. (ed.), Essays in Legal Theory in Honor of Kaarle Makkonen, Oikeustiede — Jurisprudentia, The Yearbook of the Finnish Lawyer Society XVI, Vammala, pp. 178–187.Google Scholar
  30. Niiniluoto, I. (1987), Truthlikeness, Dordrecht: D. Reidel.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Niiniluoto, I. and Tuomela, R. (1973), Theoretical Concepts and Hypothetico-Inductive Inference, Dordrecht: D. Reidel.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Peirce, C. S. (1931–35), Collected Papers (ed. by Hartshorne, C. and Weiss, P.), vols. 1–5, Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Pietarinen, J. (1972), Lawlikeness, Analogy, and Inductive Logic (Acta Philosophica Fennica 26), Amsterdam: North-Holland.Google Scholar
  34. Reisinger, L. (1981), ‘A mathematical model of reasoning by analogy’, in Pre-Proceedings of the International Study Congress on Logica, Informatica, Diritto, Florence, 6–10 April, 1981, pp. 635–656.Google Scholar
  35. Spohn, W. (1981), ‘Analogy and inductive logic: A note on Niiniluoto’, Erkenntnis 16, 35–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Uyemov, A. I. (1970), ‘The basic forms and rules of inference by analogy’, in Tavanec, P. V. (ed.), Problems of the Logic of Scientific Knowledge, Dordrecht: D. Reidel, pp. 266–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ilkka Niiniluoto
    • 1
  1. 1.The Department of PhilosophyUniversity of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland

Personalised recommendations