Matter may exist in three states, the solid, the liquid, and the gaseous. Most minerals are solid, but some materials considered here, such as petroleum and natural gas, are fluids. Liquids and gases are ‘fluids,’ i.e. unlike solids they flow under the action of gravity: a gas entirely fills the space containing it, whereas a liquid may not, but may be bounded by an upper horizontal surface. Most pure substances can exist in all three states, and may be caused to pass from one to another by heating or cooling. At sufficiently high temperatures many minerals are melted to liquids, although some are chemically decomposed by heat before they reach their melting point. A sublimate is formed by the direct condensation of a gas into a solid.
KeywordsSodium Carbonate Outer Shell Closed Tube Cobalt Nitrate Open Tube
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