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Creation and Formation

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Abstract

If, as Augustine says, there is nothing in God except “is,” then His efficacy, if He exercises it at all, will consist in the giving of “is.” But He obviously did and does give it: other things besides Him exist.

Keywords

Prime Matter Christian PhilosoPhy French Edition True Religion Instrumental Sense 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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References

  1. 1.
    Creatura … ita esse dicitur ex Deo, ut non ex ejus natura facta sit … Ex il lo … dicitur, quia ipsum auctorem habet ut sit: non ita, ut ab illo nata dit … sed … ab illo creata, condita, facta sit ex nulla alia, id est omnino ex nihilo. On the Soul and Its Origin (De anima et ejus origine), II, 3.5 (PL 44, 497); Cf. Confessions, XII, 7.7 (PL 32, 828); A Literal Commentary on “Genesis” VII, 2 (PL 34, 356); On the Notion of the Good, I (PL 42, 551).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    The City of God, XII, 2 (PL 41, 350); Confessions, XI, 5.7 (PL 32, 812).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    “nihil … majus est voluntate Dei; non ergo ejus causa quaerenda est. The Book of Eighty-three Questions, q.28 (PL 40, 18). Qui autem dicit: quare voluit facere coelum et terrain, majus aliquid quaerit quam est voluntas Dei: nihil autem majus inveniri potest.” On ‘Genesis’ Against the Manicheans I, 2.4 (PL 34, 175).Google Scholar
  4. 1.
    E.g., cf. E. Gilson, The Christian Philosophy of St. Augustine, (trans. L. Lynch, New York: Random House, 1960, pp. 185-289; C. O’Toole, The Philosophy of Creation in the Writings of St. Augustine, (Washington: The Catholic University Press, 1944); C. Boyer, L’idee de vérité dans la Philosophie de saint Augustin (Paris: Beauchesne, 1941), pp. 129-178; J. Guitton, Le temps et l’éternité chez Plotin et saint Augustin (Paris: Vrin, 1959), pp. 175-222.Google Scholar
  5. 2.
    Cf. Confessions, VII, 9.13 (PL 32, 740-741).Google Scholar
  6. 3.
    Cf. Enneads, I, 8.2; V, 2.1-2; V, 5.9; V, 6.6; VI, 4, 8.Google Scholar
  7. 4.
    The City of God, XII, 26 (PL 41, 375); cf. Against Felix the Manichean, II, 18 (PL 42, 547-578); On the True Religion, XVIII, 35 (PL 34, 137), etc.Google Scholar
  8. 5.
    E.g., in On “Genesis” Against the Manicheans, I, 6.10 (PL 34, 178); A Literal Commentary on “Genesis”, V, 5.14 (PL 34, 326). Cf. A. Gardeil, O.P., La structure de l’àme et l’expérience mystique, Paris, Lecoffre, 1927, t. I, pp. 156-159; t. II, Appendice II, pp. 313-325.Google Scholar
  9. 1.
    Cf. A. Gardeil, op. cit., t. I, pp. 157-159; t. II, p. 320; C. O’Toole, The Philosophy of Creation in the Writings of St. Augustine, pp. 27-33.Google Scholar
  10. 2.
    Cf. E. Gilson, The Christian Philosophy of St. Augustine, p. 205; nth French edition (Paris, Vrin, 1943) pp. 266-67, and n. 2.Google Scholar
  11. 3.
    “The proper act of a Deus-Essentia is to produce existents by giving them being in the proper meaning that Augustine attributes to this term, viz., ‘being that which they are.’” (“L’acte propre d’un Deus-essentia est de produire des entia en leur donnant d’exister au sens propre qu’ Augustin attribuit à ce terme, c’est-à-dire, ‘d’être ce qu’ils sont’ ”). E. Gilson, op. cit., French edition, p. 266; cf. A. Gardeil, op. cit., t. I, p. 159.Google Scholar
  12. 4.
    “… Augustin semble avoir conçu la création elle-meme comme une sorte de formation.” op. cit., p. 267, n. 2.Google Scholar
  13. 5.
    E.G., On “Genesis” Against the Manicheans, I, 6.10 (PL 34, 178); A Literal Commentary on “Genesis” 5.14 (PL 34, 326); II, 1.1 (PL 34, 263); II, 6.12 (PL 24,268); Against the Adversary of the Law and the Prophets, I, 9.12 (PL 42, 610); On Faith and Creed, II, 2 (PL 40, 181).Google Scholar
  14. 1.
    On Freedom of Choice, II, 17.45 (PL 32, 1265); similarly: “were form taken away altogether they would sink into nothingness: amissaque omnino forma in nihilum residunt.” Ibid., II, 17.46.Google Scholar
  15. 2.
    E.g., Unfinished Literal Commentary on “Genesis” X, 32 (PL 34, 233); On the Greatness of the Soul, XXXIII, 73 (PL 32, 1075); On the Christian Way of Life, II, 6.8 (PL 32, 1348); On the True Religion, XI, 21 (PL 34, 131).Google Scholar
  16. 3.
    On the True Religion, XVIII, 36 (PL 34, 137).Google Scholar
  17. 4.
    On Freedom of Choice, II, 17.45-46 (PL 32, 1265-66).Google Scholar
  18. 5.
    The City of God, XIX, 13.1 (PL 41, 640). 6 Ibid.Google Scholar
  19. 1.
    Cf. The City of God, XIX, 12.1 (PL 41, 637-638).Google Scholar
  20. 2.
    The Book of Eighty-three Questions, q. 35.1 (PL 40, 23): nihil enim aliud est amare, quam propter se ipsam rem aliquam appetere.Google Scholar
  21. 3.
    Cf. Confessions, XIII, 7.8 (PL 32, 847-848); XIII, 9.10 (PL 32, 848-849); Epistle LV, 10.18 (PL 33, 212): “Animus quippe, velut pondere, amore fertur quocumque fertur”; Epistle CLVII, 2.9 (PL 33, 677); The City of God, XI, 28. (PL 41, 341-342).Google Scholar
  22. 4.
    On the True Religion, XI, 21. (PL 34, 131).Google Scholar
  23. 5.
    See below, Chapter VII.Google Scholar
  24. 6.
    Sermon CXVII, 2.3 (PL 38, 663); On Freedom of Choice, II, 16.44 (PL 32, 1264-1265); The City of God, VIII, 6 (PL 41, 251); The Trinity, VI, 10.12 (PL 42, 932).Google Scholar
  25. 1.
    E.g., On Freedom of Choice, II, 17.45 (PL 32, 1265).Google Scholar
  26. 2.
    “Caetera illius unius [sc. Verbum Dei] similia dici possunt in quantum sunt, in tantum enim et vera sunt … Ut ergo Veritas forma verorum est, ita similitudo forma similium est. Quapropter vera quoniam in tantum vera sunt, in quantum sunt; in tantum autem sunt, in quantum principalis unius similia sunt: ea forma est omnium quae sunt, quae est similitudo Principii; et Veritas est, quia sine ulla dissimilitudine est.” On the True Religion, XXXVI, 66 (PL 34, 151-152); italics added.Google Scholar
  27. 3.
    On Freedom of Choice, II, 17.45 (PL 32, 1265).Google Scholar
  28. 4.
  29. 5.
    E.g., On Freedom of Choice, II, 17-45 (PL 32, 1265); On the Immortality of the Soul, VIII, 14, (PL 32, 1028); Confessions, XI, 4.6 (PL 32, 811); On the Soul and its Origin, II, 3-5 (PL 44, 497).Google Scholar
  30. 6.
    “… facit [Deus] esse quidquid aliquo modo est, inquantumque est; quia nisi faciente illo, non tale vel tale esset, sed prorsus esse non posset.” The City of God, XII, 25 (PL 41, 375).Google Scholar
  31. 1.
    Cf. De Pot., Ill, 5, ad 2; Summa Theologiae, I, 65, 3.Google Scholar
  32. 2.
    De Pot., Ill, 2, ad 9.Google Scholar
  33. 3.
    On the True Religion XVIII, 35 (PL 34, 137); see Against Felix the Manichean, II, 18 (PL 42, 547-548) for a rather full development of this whole doctrine. In St. Thomas, see De Pot., Ill, 1, ad 7; Summa Theologiae I, 45, 1; 65, 3. Cf. J. Anderson. The Cause of Being (St. Louis: Herder, 1952, pp. 7-10; p. 31 and note).Google Scholar
  34. 1.
    “… Neque enim materies omnino nihil est, de qua in libro Sapientiae legitur, ‘Qui fecisti mundum de materia informi (11:18).’ Nam ergo quia informis dicta est, omnino nihil est: nec Deo fuit vel ipsa coaeterna, tanquam a nullo facta … Absit enim ut dicatur omnipotens non potuisse facere, nisi unde faceret, inveniret. Ergo et ipsam Deus fecit. Nec mala est putanda, quia informis: sed bona est intelligenda, quia jormabilis, id est, formationis capax.” Against the Adversary of the Law and the Prophets, I, 8. (PL 42, 609); italics added.Google Scholar
  35. 2.
    “sunt … ideae principales formae quaedam … “Book of Eighty-Three Questions q. 46, 2 (PL 40, 30); also called “species” (species), “reasons” (rationes) — eternal, immutable, necessary. Ibid. See below, Chapters VI and VII.Google Scholar
  36. 3.
    E.g., Summa Theologiae, III, 13.1.Google Scholar
  37. 1.
    “Necesse est … ponere proprietates in divinis … Quae quidem significatur in abstracto, ut quaedam formae personarum. Unde, cum de ratione formae sit, quod sit in eo cujus est forma, oportet dicere proprietates esse in personis, et eas tarnen esse personas; sicut essentiam esse in Deo dicimus, quae tarnen est Deus.” Summa Theologiae I, 41, 1; italics added.Google Scholar
  38. 2.
    See above, p. 41 note 1.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague, Netherlands 1965

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Villanova UniversityUSA

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