The debate on military affairs of the early twenties in which Frunze and Trotsky were the principal figures did not spring up full grown. It was erected on a substructure which itself consisted of at least two elements — a long socialist and communist concern with military questions and the immediate problems of building a socialist state.
KeywordsEarly Twenty Military Organization Military Affair Advanced Industrial Country Standing Army
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1Lenin’s break with the Second International came chiefly on the question of whether or not the “national, imperialist” war should be changed into an international “civil” war of the classes.Google Scholar
- 2For instance, some months before the assassination of Tsar Alexander II on March 1, 1881, the Narodnaia Volia group had advocated the replacement of the standing army by a territorial army. See, Franco Venturi, The Roots of Revolution: A History of the Populist and Socialist Movments in Nineteenth Centruy Russia (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1960), p. 678 and passim.; Walter Darnell Jacobs, “Die künftige Sowjetarmee: Elite oder Miliz,” Wehrkunde, March 1960, pp. 126 ff.; and Walter Darnell Jacobs, „Das Ende der Milizgedankens in der UdSSR,” ibid., May 1963, pp. 255 ff.Google Scholar
- 3S. Neumann has written a useful article on Marx and Engels as military theorists. See, Edward Mead Earle, ed., Makers of Modern Strategy (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1948), pp. 155-171. See, also, Engels as Military Critic (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1959).Google Scholar