Mode of Cyclic AMP Action in Growth Control

  • Yoon Sang Cho-Chung


It is now well recognized that cyclic adenosine 3’,5’-monophosphate (cyclic AMP), a nucleotide present in a wide variety of organisms, is a major regulator of numerous cellular activities (71), (93), (113). The intracellular accumulation of cyclic AMP, either endogenously generated or exogenously supplied, inhibits the growth of normal and transformed cells in vivo and in vitro [see review (16)]. There is also evidence that an inverse correlation exists between the level of cellular cyclic AMP and the rate of cell growth. Unrestrained growth, a characteristic of neoplastic cells, however, is not always associated with diminished levels of cyclic AMP. Several studies have shown wide ranges of cyclic AMP. levels in proliferating tissues of animals and humans (16). Moreover, an increase in cellular cyclic AMP has been produced in tumors following treatment with N6,O2-dibutyryl cyclic AMP (dibutyryl cyclic AMP) although tumor regression occurs only in tumors that are responsive to dibutyryl cyclic AMP (14). In our investigations on the mechanism of dibutyryl cyclic AMP-responsiveness, we utilized rat mammary tumor models that were either “responsive” or “unresponsive” to dibutyryl cyclic AMP treatment.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Anderson WB, Johnson GS, Pastan I. Transformation of chick-embryo fibroblasts by wild-type and temperature-sensitive Rous sarcoma virus alters adenylate cyclase activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 70: 1055–1059, 1973.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ashman DF, Lipton R, Melicow MM, Price TD. Isolation of adenosine 3’,5’-monophosphate and guanosine 3’,5’-monophosphate from rat urine. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 11: 330–334, 1963.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Beatson GT. On the treatment of inoperable cases of carcinoma of the mamma: Suggestions for a new method of treatment, with illustrative cases. Lancet 2: 104–107, 162–165, 1896.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Blume A, Gilbert F, Wilson S, Farber J, Rosenberg R, Nirenberg M. Regulation of acetylcholinesterase in neuroblastoma cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 67: 786–792, 1970.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bodwin JS, Cho-Chung YS. Interdependence of cyclic AMP binding protein and estrogen receptor in the growth control of hormone-dependent mammary carcinoma. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 20: 234, 1979.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bodwin JS, Cho-Chung YS, Schneider WC. Nuclear translocation of estrogen receptor and cyclic AMP-binding protein in MTW9 mammary tumor. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 21: 36, 1980.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bodwin JS, Clair T, Cho-Chung YS. Inverse relation between estrogen receptors and cyclic adenosine 3’,5’-monophosphate-binding proteins in hormone-dependent mammary tumor regression due to dibutyryl cyclic adenosine 3’,5’-monophosphate treatment or ovariectomy. Cancer Res 38: 3410–3413, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bodwin JS, Clair T, Cho-Chung YS. Relationship of hormone-dependency to estrogen receptor and adenosine 3’,5’-cyclic monophosphate-binding proteins in rat mammary tumors. J Natl Cancer Inst 64: 395–398, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bodwin JS, Hirayama PH, Rego JA, Cho-Chung YS. Tamoxifen or pharmacological dose estrogen induced regression of hormone-dependent mammary tumors: Cyclic adenosine 3’,5’-monophosphate mediated events. J Natl Cancer Inst 66: 321–326, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Burk R. Reduced adenyl cyclase activity in a polyoma virus transformed cell line. Nature 219: 1272–1275, 1968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Byus CV, Russell DH. Possible regulations of ornithine decarboxylase activity in the adrenal medulla of the rat by a cAMP-dependent mechanism. Biochem Pharmac 25: 1595–1600, 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Callentine MR. Nonsteroidal estrogen antagonists. Clin Obstet Gynecol 10: 74–87, 1967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chan PC, Cohen LA. Dietary fat and growth promotion of rat mammary tumors. Cancer Res 35: 3384–3386, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cho-Chung YS. In vivo inhibition of tumor growth by cyclic adenosine 3’,5’-moncphosphate derivatives. Cancer Res 34: 3492–3496, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cho-Chung YS. Interaction of cyclic AMP and estrogen in tumor growth control. pp 335–346 in Endocrine Control in Neoplasia, eds RK Sharma, WE Criss, Raven Press, New York, 1978.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cho-Chung YS. Cyclic AMP and tumor growth in vivo. pp 55–93 in Influence of Hormones on Tumor Development, VoT 1, eds JA Kellen, R Hilf, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1979.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cho-Chung YS. Minireview: On the interaction of cyclic AMP-binding protein and estrogen receptor in growth control. Life Sci 24: 1231–1240, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cho-Chung YS. On the mechanism of cyclic AMP-mediated growth arrest of solid tumors. pp 111–121 in Advances in Cyclic Nucleotide Research, Vol 12, eds P Hamet, H Sands, Raven Press, New York, 1980.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cho-Chung YS. Cyclic AMP and mammary tumor regression. Cell Mol Biol 26: 395–403, 1980.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cho-Chung YS. Cyclic AMP and its receptor protein in tumor growth regulation in vivo. J Cyclic Nucleotide Res 6: 163–177, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cho-Chung YS, Archibald D, Clair T. Cyclic AMP receptor triggers nuclear protein phosphorylation in a hormone-dependent mammary tumor cell-free system. Science 205: 1390–1392, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cho-Chung YS, Bodwin JS, Clair T. Cyclic AMP-binding protein: Role in ovariectomy-induced regression of a hormone-dependent mammary tumor. J Natl Cancer Inst 60: 1175–1178, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cho-Chung YS, Bodwin JS, Clair T. Cyclic AMP-binding protein: Inverse relationship with estrogen-receptors in hormone-dependent mammary tumor regression. Eur-J Biochem 86: 51–60, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cho-Chung YS, Clair T. Altered cyclic AMP-binding and db cyclic AMP-unresponsiveness in vivo. Nature 265: 452–454, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cho-Chung YS, Clair T, Berghoffer B. L-arginine and dibutyryl cyclic AMP synergistically inhibit growth of murine mammary tumor in vivo and human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) in vivo. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 21: 39, 1980.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Cho-Chung YS, Clair T, Bodwin JS, Hill DM. Arrest of mammary tumor growth in vivo by L-arginine: Stimulation of NAD-dependent activation of adenylate cyclase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 95: 1306–1313, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Cho-Chung YS, Clair T, Huffman P. Loss of nuclear cyclic AMP-bind-ing in cyclic AMP-unresponsive Walker 256 mammary carcinoma. J Biol Chem 252: 6349–6355, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cho-Chung YS, Clair T, Porper R. Cyclic AMP-binding proteins and protein kinase during regression of Walker 256 mammary carcinoma. J Biol Chem 252: 6342–6348, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cho-Chung YS, Clair T, Schwimmer M, Steinberg L, Rego J, Grantham FH. Cyclic adenosine 3’,5’-monophosphate receptor proteins in hormone-dependent and -independent rat mammary tumors. Cancer Res (in press).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Cho-Chung YS, Clair T, Yi PN, Parkison C. Comparative studies on cyclic AMP binding and protein kinase in cyclic AMP-responsive and -unresponsive Walker 256 mammary carcinomas. J Biol Chem 252: 6335–6341, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Cho-Chung YS, Clair T, Zubialde JP. Increase of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase type II as an early event in hormone-dependent mammary tumor regression. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 85: 1150–1155, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Cho-Chung YS, Doud FJ. Antagonistic action between cyclic AMP and estrogen in phosphorylation of mammary tumor nuclear proteins. Cancer Letters 5: 219–224, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Cho-Chung YS, Gullino PM. Mammary tumor regression. V. Role of acid ribonuclease and cathepsin. J Biol Chem 248: 4743–4749, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Cho-Chung YS, Gullino PM. Mammary tumor regression. VI. Synthesis and degradation of acid ribonuclease. J Biol Chem 248: 4750–4755, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Cho-Chung YS, Gullino PM. In vivo inhibition of growth of two hormone-dependent mammary tumors by dibutyryl cyclic AMP. Science 183: 87–88, 1974.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Cho-Chung YS, Redler BH. Dibutyryl cyclic AMP mimics ovariectomy: Nuclear protein phosphorylation in mammary tumor regression. Science 197: 272–275, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Cho-Chung YS, Redler BH, Lewallen RP. Nuclear protein phosphorylation and hormone-dependent mammary tumor regression following dibutyryl cyclic adenosine 3’,5’-monophosphate treatment or ovariectomy. Cancer Res 38: 3405–3409, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Chuang DM, Hollenbeck RA, Costa E. Protein phosphorylation in nuclei of adrenal medulla incubated with cyclic adenosine 3’,5’monophosphate-dependent protein kinase. J Biol Chem 252: 8365–8373, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Coffino P, Bourne HR, Friedrich U, Hochman J, Insel PA, Lamaire I, Melmon KL, Tomkins GM. Molecular mechanisms of cyclic AMP action: A genetic approach. pp 669–684 in Recent Progress in Hormone Research, Vol 32, ed RO Greep, Academic Press, New York, 1976.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Coffino P, Yamamoto KR. Somatic genetic studies of steroid and cyclic AMP receptors. pp 57–66 in Control Mechanisms in Cancer, eds WE Criss, T Ono, JR Sabine, Raven Press, New York, 1976.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Cohen LA, Chan PC. Intracellular cAMP levels in normal rat mammary gland and adenocarcinoma. In vivo vs in vitro. Life Sci 16: 107–115, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Corbin JD, Sugden PH, West L, Flockhart DA, Lincoln TM, McCarthy D. Studies on the properties and mode of action of the purified regulatory subunit of bovine heart adenosine 3’,5’-monophosphatedependent protein kinase. J Biol Chem 253: 3997–4003, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Costa E, Kurosawa A, Guidotti A. Activation and nuclear translocation of protein kinase during transsynaptic induction of tyrosine 3monooxygenase. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 73: 1058–1062, 1976.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Daniel V, Litwack G, Tomkins GM. Induction of cytolysis of cultured lymphoma cells by adenosine 3’,5’-cyclic monophosphate and the isolation of resistant variants. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 70: 76–79, 1973.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Dao TL. Nature of hormonal influence in carcinogenesis studies in vivo and in vitro. pp 503–514 in Chemical Carcinogenesis, Part B, e8 POP T0, JA DiPaolo, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 1974.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Dao TL, Sinha D. Oestrogen and prolactin in mammary carcinogenesis in vivo and in vitro studies. pp 189–194 in Prolactin and Carcinogenesis, eds AR Boyns, K Griffiths, Alpha Omega Alpha, Cardiff, Wales, 1972.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    De Rubertis FR, Craven PA. Cyclic nucleotides in carcinogenesis: Activation of the guanylate cyclase-cyclic AMP system by chemicalcarcinogen. pp 97–109 in Advances in Cyclic Nucleotide Research, Vol 12, eds P Hamet, H Sands, Raven Press, New York, 1980.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Erlichman J, Rosenfeld R, Rosen OM. Phosphorylation of a cyclic adenosine 3’,5’-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase from bovine cardiac muscle. J Biol Chem 249: 5000–5003, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Gericke D, Chandra P. Inhibition of tumor growth by nucleoside cyclic 3’,5’-monophosphates. Hoppe Seyler’s Z Physiol Chem 350: 1469–1471, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Goldberg ND, Dietz SB, O’Toole AG. Cyclic guanosine 3’,5’-monophosphate in mammalian tissues and urine. J Biol Chem 244: 4458–4466, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Goldberg ND, Haddox MK. Cyclic AMP metabolism and involvement in biological regulation. Ann Rev Biochem 46: 823–896, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Guerinot F, Delarue JC, Contesso G, Bohuon C. Adenosine 3’,5’-cyclic monophosphate and guanosine 3’,5’-cyclic monophosphate levels in human breast cancer tissue. Oncology 34: 261–263, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Gullino PM, Pettigrew HM, Grantham FH. N-Nitrosomethylurea as mammary gland carcinogen in rats. J Natl Cancer Inst 54: 401–404, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Haddow A, Watkinson JM, Paterson E, Koller PC. Influence of synthetic oestrogens upon advanced malignant disease. Br Med J 2: 393–398, 1944.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Handschin JC, Eppenberger U. Altered cellular ratio of type I and type II cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in human mammary tumors. FEBS Lett 106: 301–304, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Nelson L, Nelson C, Peterson RF. A rationale for the treatment of metastatic neuroblastoma. J Natl Cancer Inst 57: 727–729, 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Hickie RA. Regulation of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in Morris hepatomas and liver. Adv Exp Med Biol 92: 451–488, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Hilf R, Inge M, Carlton B. Biochemical and morphologic properties of a new lactating mammary tumor line in the rat. Cancer Res 25: 286–297, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Huggins C, Bergenstal DM. Inhibition of human mammary and prostatic cancers by adrenalectomy. Cancer Res 12: 134–141, 1952.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Huggins C, Grand LC, Brillantes FP. Mammary cancer induced by a single feeding of polynuclear hydrocarbons, and its suppression. Nature 189: 204–207, 1961.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Hoffmann F, Beavo JA, Bechtel PJ, Krebs EG. Comparison of adenosine 3’,5’-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase from rabbit skeletal and bovine heart muscle. J Biol Chem 250: 7795–7801, 1975.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Ishikawa E, Ishikawa S, Davis JW, Sutherland EW. Determination of guanosine 3’,5’-monophosphate in tissues and guanyl cyclase in rat intestine. J Biol Chem 244: 6371–6376, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Jensen EV, DeSombre ER. Mechanism of action of the female sex hormones. Annu Rev Biochem 789: 203–230, 1972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Jungmann RA, Lee SG, DeAngelo AB. Translocation of cytoplasmic protein kinase and cyclic adenosine monophosphate-binding protein to intracellular acceptor sites. pp 281–306 in Advances in Cyclic Nucleotide Research, Vol 5, eds GI Drummond, P Greengard, GA Robison, Raven Press, New York, 1975.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Keller R. Suppression of normal and enhanced tumor growth in rats by agents interfering with intracellular cyclic nucleotides. Life Sci 11 (part 2): 485–491, 1972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Kim U, Furth J. Relation of mammotropes to mammary tumors. IV. Development of highly hormone dependent mammary tumors. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 105: 490–492, 1960.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Kimhi Y, Palfrey C, Spector I, Barak Y, Littauer UZ. Maturation of neuroblastoma cells in the presence of dimethylsulfoxide. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 73: 462–466, 1976.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    King RJB, Mainwaring WIP. V. Glucocorticoid. VI. Mineralicorticoids. III. Estrogens. VIII. Progesterone. pp 102–287 in Steroid Cell Interactions, eds RJB King, University Park Press, Baltimore, 1974.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    King RJB, Smith JA, Steggles AW. Oestrogen-binding and the hormone responsiveness of tumors. Steroidologia 1: 73–88, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Klein DM, Loizzi RF. Enhancement of R3230AC rat mammary tumor growth and cellular differentiation by dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate. J Natl Cancer Inst 58: 813–818, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Konijn TM. Cyclic AMP as a first messenger. pp 17–31 in Advances Cyclic Nucleotide Res, Vol 1, eds P Greengard, GA Robison, R Paoletti, Raven Press, New York, 1972.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Krebs EG. Protein kinase. Curr Top Cell Regul 5: 99–133, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Kuehl FA Jr, Ham EA, Zanetti ME, Sanford CH, Nicol SE, Goldberg ND. Estrogen-related increases in uterine guanosine 3’,5’-cyclic monophosphate levels. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 71: 1866–1870, 1974.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Kling W, Bechtel E, Geyer E, Salokangas A, Preisz J, Huber P, Torhorst J, Jungmann RA, Talmadge K, Eppenberger U. Altered levels of cyclic nucleotides, cAMP-phosphodiesterase and adenylyl cyclase activities in normal, dysplastic and neoplastic human mammary tissue. FEBS Lett 82: 102–106, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Kuo JF, Greengard P. Cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinase. IV. Wide-spread occurrence of adenosine 31,5’-monophosphatedependent protein kinase in various tissues and phyla of the animal kingdom. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 64: 1349–1355, 1969.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Kyser KA. The tissue, subcellular and molecular binding of estradiol to dimethylbenzanthracene-induced rat mammary tumors. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Chicago, 1970.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Lerner LJ, Holthaus FJ Jr, Thompsen CR. A non-steroidal estrogen antagonist l-(p-2-diethylaminoethoxyphenyl)-1-phenyl-2-p-methoxyphenyl ethanol. Endocrinology 63: 295–318, 1958.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Leung BS, Sasaki GH, Leung JS. Estrogen-prolactin dependency in 7, 12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced tumors. Cancer Res 35: 621–627, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Liao W. Cellular receptors and mechanism of action of steroid hormones. pp 87–172 in International Review of Cytology, Vol 41, eds GH Bourne, JF Danielli, KW Jean, Academic Press, New York, 1975.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Liu AYC, Greengard P. Regulation by steroid hormones of phosphorylation of specific protein common to several target organs. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 73: 568–572, 1976.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Maeno H, Reyes PL, Ueda T, Rudolph SA, Greengard P. Autophosphorylation of adenosine 3’,5’-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase from bovine brain. Arch Biochem Biophys 164: 551–559, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Magee PN. In vivo reactions of nitroso compounds. Ann NY Acad Sci 163: 717–73DT 19Eg.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Matusik RJ, Hilf R. Relationship of adenosine 3’,5’-cyclic monophosphate and guanosine 3’,5’-cyclic monophosphate to growth of dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced mammary tumors in rats. J Natl Cancer Inst 56: 659–661, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    McGuire WL. Current status of estrogen receptors in human breast cancer. Cancer 36: 638–644, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    McGuire WL, Julian J. Comparison of macromolecular binding of estradiol in hormone-dependent and hormone-independent rat mammary carcinoma. Cancer Res 31: 1440–1445, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Minton JP, Wisenbaugh TW, Matthews RH. Elevated adenosine 3’,5’monophosphate levels in human breast cancer tissue. J Natl Cancer Inst 53: 283–284, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Narisawa T, Magadia NE, Weisburger JH, Wynder EL. Promoting effect of bile acids on colon carcinogenesis after intrarectal instillation of N-methyl-N’-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine in rats. J Nati Cancer Inst 53: 1093–1097, 1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Oertel GW, Benes P, Hoffman G, Shuy E. Interaction between dehydroepiandrosterone, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and cyclic adenosine 3’,5’-monophosphate in neoplastic and normal human mammary tissue. Experientia 31: 1124–1125, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    O’Malley BW, Means AR. Female steroid hormones and target cell nuclei. The effects of steroid hormones on target cell nuclei are of major importance in the interaction of new cell functions. Science 183: 610–620, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Otten J, Bader J, Johnson GS, Pastan I. A mutation in a Rous sarcoma virus gene that controls adenosine 3’,5’-monophosphate levels and transformation. J Biol Chem 247: 1632–1633, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Pastan I, Johnson GS. Cyclic AMP and the transformation of fibroblasts. Adv Cancer Res 19: 303–329, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Pastan I, Johnson GS, Anderson WB. Role of cyclic nucleotides in growth control. Annu Rev Biochem 44: 491–522, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Pastan I, Perlman RL. Regulation of gene transcription in E. coli by cyclic AMP. pp 11–16 in Advances in Cyclic Nucleotide Research, Vol 1, eds P Greengard, GA Robison, R Paoletti, Raven Press, New York, 1972.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Perry JW, Oka T. Cyclic AMP as a negative regulator of hormonally induced lactogenesis in mouse mammary gland organ culture. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77: 2093–2097, 1980.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Pomerantz AH, Rudolph SA, Haley BE, Greengard P. Photoaffinity labeling of a protein kinase from bovine brain with 8-azidoadenosine 3’,5’-monophosphate. Biochemistry 14: 3858–3862, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Prasad KN. Cyclic AMP-induced differentiated mouse neuroblastoma cells lose tumourigenic characteristics. Cytobios 6: 163–166, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Prasad KN, Kumar S. Role of cyclic AMP in differentiation of human neuroblastoma cells in culture. Cancer 36: 1338–1343, 1975.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Prasad KN, Sahu SK, Sinha PK. Cyclic nucleotides in the regulation of expression of differentiated functions in neuroblastoma cells. J Natl Cancer Inst 57: 619–631, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Rangel-Aldao R, Kupiec JW, Rosen OM. Resolution of the phosphorylated and dephosphorylated cAMP-binding proteins of bovine cardiac muscle by affinity labeling and two-dimensional electrophoresis. J Biol Chem 254: 2499–2508, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Richelson E. Stimulation of tyrosine hydroxylase activity in an adrenergic clone of mouse neuroblastoma by dibutyryl cyclic AMP. Nature New Biol 242: 175–177, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Rubin CS, Rosen OM. Protein phosphorylation. Annu Rev Biochem 44: 831–887, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Sapag-Hagar M, Greenbaum AL. The role of cyclic nucleotides in the development and function of rat mammary tissue. FEBS Lett 46: 180–183, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Sapag-Hagar M, Greenbaum AL, Lewis DJ, Hallowes RC. The effect of DI-butyryl cAMP on enzymatic and metabolic changes in explants of rat mammary tissue. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 59: 261–268, 1974.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Schinzinger A. Ueber Carcinoma mammae. Verh Deutsch Ges Chir 18: 28–29, 1889.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Schubert D, Humphreys S, Baroni C, Cohn S. In vitrodifferentiation of a mouse neuroblastoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 64: 316–323, 1969.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Segaloff A. Hormones and breast cancer. Recent Prog Horm Res 22: 351–379, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Shafie SM, Cho-Chung YS, Gullino PM. Cyclic adenosine 3’,5’-monophosphate and protein kinase activity in insulin-dependent and and -independent mammary tumors. Cancer Res 39: 2501–2504, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Shanker G, Ahrens H, Sharma RK. Novel protein kinase, AUT-PK85, isolated from adrenocortical carcinoma: Purification and characterization. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 76: 66–70, 1979.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Simantov R, Sachs L. Temperature sensitivity of cyclic adenosine 3’,5’-monophosphate-binding proteins and the regulation of growth and differentiation in neuroblastoma cells. J Biol Chem 250: 32363242, 1975.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Smith EE, Handler AH. Apparent suppression of the tumorigenicity of human cancer cells by cyclic AMP. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol 5: 863–866, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    So BT, Magadia NE, Wynder EL. Induction of carcinomas of the colon and rectum in rats by N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. J Natl Cancer Inst 50: 927–932, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Steinberg RA, O’Farrell PH, Friedrich U, Coffino P. Mutations causing charge alterations in regulatory subunits of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase of cultured S49 lymphoma cells. Cell 10: 381–391, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Sutherland EW. Studies on the mechanism of hormone action. Science 177: 401–408, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Tisdale MJ, Phillips BJ. Cyclic nucleotide metabolism in Walker carcinoma cells resistant to alkylating agents. Biochem Pharm 27: 947–952, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Turkington RW. Hormone-dependent differentiation of mammary gland in vitro. pp 199–218 in Current Topics in Developmental Biology, Vol 3, eds AA Moscona, A Monroy, Academic Press, New York, 1968.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Walter U, Uno I, Liu AY-C, Greengard P. Study of autophosphorylation of isozymes of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases. J Biol Chem 252: 6588–6590, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Waymire JC, Weiner N, Prasad KN. Regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase activity in cultured mouse neuroblastoma cells. Elevation induced by analogs of adenosine 3’,5’-cyclic monophosphate. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 69: 2241–224’5, 1972.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Weber W, Hilz H. Adenosine 3’,5’-monophosphate-binding proteins from bovine kidney. Isolation by affinity chromatography and limited proteolysis of the regulatory subunit of protein kinase II. Eur J Biochem 83: 215–225, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Wittliff JL. Steroid binding proteins in normal and neoplastic mammary cells. Methods Cancer Res 11: 293–354, 1975.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Wu C. Hormonal regulation of glutamine synthetase and ornithine aminotransferase in normal and neoplastic rat tissues. pp 125–138 in Control Mechanisms in Cancer, eds WE Criss, T Ono, JR Sabine, Raven Press, New York, 1976.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Eden Press Inc. 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yoon Sang Cho-Chung

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations