Advertisement

Main types of contaminants

  • R. C. Haines
  • Mary R. Harris

Abstract

It will be appreciated from the preceding chapters that because of the inherent diversity in the materials and processes used in industrial activities it is inevitable that many different types of contaminated land have emerged. Furthermore, there is a corresponding variability in the range of hazard that particular contaminants are considered to pose, either to the environment or public health.

Keywords

Heavy Metal Pollution Landfill Site Blood Lead Level Arsenic Trioxide Phytotoxic Effect 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Peterson, P.J., Benson, L.M. and Zieve, R. (1981) Metalloids. In: Effect of heavy metal pollution on plants, Vol. 1, (ed. N.W. Lepp) Applied Science, London, 279–342.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Thornton, I. (1981) Geochemical aspects of the distribution and forms of heavy metals in soils. In: Effect of heavy metal pollution on plants, Vol. 2, (ed. N.W. Lepp) Applied Science, London, 1–33.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sinclair, W.A., Stone, E.L. and Scheer, C.F. (1975) Toxicity to hemlocks grown in arsenic contaminated soil previously used for potato production. Hort. Sci., 10, 35–36.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Aggett, J. and Aspell, A.C. (1980) Arsenic contamination in an apple orchard. Environ. Pollut., 22, 39–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Porter, E.K. and Peterson, P.J. (1977) Arsenic tolerance in grasses growing in mine waste. Environ. Pollut., 14, 255–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Department of the Environment, (1980) Cadmium in the environment and its significance to man, Pollution Paper No. 17, HMSO, London.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Webber, J. (1981) Trace metals in agriculture. In: Effect of heavy metal pollution on plants, Vol.2, (ed. N.W. Lepp), Applied Science, London, 159–184.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Heeps, K.D. (1982) The reclamation of a disused sewage works, Public Health Eng. 10, 213–218.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Department of the Environment, (1984) Cadmium bearing wastes, Waste Management Paper No. 24, HMSO, London.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Barltrop, D. (1986) Evaluation of cadmium exposure from contaminated soil. In: Proc. Conf, Contaminated Soil, Utrecht, The Netherlands, Martinus Nijhoff, Dordrecht, 169–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Alloway, B.J. and Morgan, H. (1986) The behaviour and availability of cadmium, nickel and lead in polluted soil. Ibid, 101–113.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Thornton, I. (1986) Metal contamination of soils in UK urban gardens: Implications to health. Ibid, 203–209.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cooney, P. (1980) Heavy metal contamination: Background levels and site case histories in the London Borough of Greenwich. Papers to a workshop, Case histories of contaminated land—local authority viewpoints, Research Note 16, JURUE, Birmingham.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Piscator, M. (1979) Metabolism and effects of cadmium. In: Proc. Conf. Management and control of heavy metals in the environment, London, CEP Consultants Ltd., Edinburgh, 1–7.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Simms, D.L. and Beckett, M.J. (1985) Contaminated land: Risk analysis and safety margins. Paper presented to Conf., Contaminated Soil, Utrecht, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    John, M.K. and Van Learhoven, C.J (1976) Differential effects of cadmium on lettuce varieties. Environ. Pollut., 10, 163–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Davies, B.E. and White, H.M. (1980) Cadmium and lead contamination of soils and vegetables in relation to historic base metal mining. In: Proc. Conf, Reclamation of Contaminated Land, Eastbourne, SCI, London, C8/1–C8/8.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lindsay, D.G. (1980) Toxic elements in food. Ibid, C1/1–C1/7.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Page, A.L., Bingham, F.T. and Chang, A.C. (1981) Cadmium. In: Effect of Heavy Metal Pollution on Plants, Vol. 1, (ed., N.W. Lepp) Applied Science, London, 77–109.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Roberts, T.M. et al. (1974) Lead contamination around two secondary lead smelters in downtown Toronto: Estimation of ongoing pollution and accumulation by humans. Institute for Environmental Studies, University of Toronto, Pub. No. EE-1.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Harris, M.R. (1981) Concentration of lead in the atmosphere and soil measured in the vicinity of a secondary lead smelter. Environ. Tech. Lett., 2, 233–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    McCarthy, M.J. (1980) Reclamation of a refuse tip for open space and housing development. In: Proc. Conf, Reclamation of Contaminated Land, Eastbourne, SCI, London, B8/1–B8/11.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Koeppe, D.E. (1981) Lead: Understanding the minimal toxicity of lead in plants. In: Effect of Heavy Metal Pollution on Plants, Vol. 1, (ed. N.W. Lepp) Applied Science, London, 55–76.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Page, R.A. and Swires-Hennessy, E. (1986) A safe level for lead in soil and dust. In: Proc. Conf, Contaminated Soil, Utrecht, The Netherlands, Martinus Nijhoff, Dordrecht, 233–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Dickinson, N.M. and Lepp, N.W. (1984) Pollution of tropical plantation crops by copper fungicides: A copper budget for a Kenyan coffee plantation. In: Proc. Conf., Environmental Contamination, London, CEP Consultants Ltd., Edinburgh, 341–346.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Heeps, K.D. and Pike, E.R. (1980) Reclamation of a disused sewage farm. In: Proc. Conf., Reclamation of Contaminated Land, Eastbourne, SCI, London, B6/1–B6/10.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Freedman, B. and Hutchinson, T.C. (1981) Sources of metal and elemental contamination of terrestrial environments. In: Effect of Heavy Metal Pollution of Plants, Vol. 2, (ed., N.W. Lepp) Applied Science, London, 35–94.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Collins, J.C. (1981) Zinc. In: Effect of Heavy Metal Pollution on Plants, Vol. 1., (ed., N.W. Lepp) Applied Science, London, 145–169.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wilson, D.C. and Stevens, C. (1981) Problems arising from the redevelopment of gas works and similar sites. AERE Report R10366, HMSO, London.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Department of the Environment (1976) Heat-treatment cyanide wastes. Waste Management Paper No. 8, HMSO, London.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Rice, R.G. (1984) Purification and recycling of groundwater contaminated with petroleum products and cyanides—the Karlsruhe (FRG) drinking water treatment plant. In: Proc. Conf., Management of Uncontrolled Hazardous Waste Sites, Washington DC, HMCRI, Silver Spring, Maryland, 600–603.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Roberts, T.M. and Gemmell, R.P. (1980) Establishment of vegetation on gas works waste. In: Proc. Conf, Reclamation of Contaminated Land, Eastbourne, SCI, London, F11/1–F1 1/10.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Personal Communication (1985) London Borough of Greenwich.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    ECOTEC Research and Consulting Ltd., (1985) The re-use of landfill sites. A report to the EEC Commission of the European Communities, ECOTEC Research and Consulting Ltd, Birmingham.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Patty, F.A. (1963) Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Vol. II, Interscience, New York.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Smith, M.A. (1986) Effect of phenol on concrete, Mag. Concrete Research. (in press).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Interdepartmental Committee on the Redevelopment of Contaminated Land, ICRCL (1985) Asbestos on contaminated sites. ICRCL Paper 64/85, 1st edition, DoE, CDEP, London.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    ICRCL. (1984) Notes on the fire hazards of contaminated land. ICRCL Paper 61/84, 1st edition, DoE, CDEP London.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    James, S.C., Kinman, R.N. and Nutini, D.C. (1985) Toxic and flammable gases. In: Contaminated Land, (ed., M.A. Smith) Plenum, New York, 207–255.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Beckett, M.J. and Simms, D.L. (1986) Assessing contaminated land: UK Policy and practice. In: Proc. Conf., Contaminated Soil, Utrecht, The Netherlands, Martinus Nijhoff, Dordrecht, 285–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Blackie & Son Ltd 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. C. Haines
  • Mary R. Harris

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations