Clinical Appraisal of Vision



Except for the reflex pupillary reaction to light, responses to visual stimuli are considered to be indicative of cortical function in man. The pupillary constriction on exposure to a flash of light is automatic and even occurs in drowsiness and in sleep. This reflex is mediated by the mid brain and does not depend on cerebral hemisphere function. In contrast, all other responses to a visual stimulus, whether it be simply turning of the eyes towards a flash or reading a paragraph of printed material, involve the entire visual pathways in the brain including the visual cortex. To elicit the maximal reaction to a perceived light stimulus, the subject must be alert, interested and able to respond in a meaningful way.


Visual Acuity Newborn Infant Optokinetic Nystagmus Snellen Chart Visual Motor Integration 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Brazelton, T.B. Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale, Philadelphia, Pa.: J.P. Lippincott Co. (1973).Google Scholar
  2. Dobson, V. and Teller, D. Assessment of visual acuity in infants, in Armington, J.C., Krauskopf, J., and Wooten, B.R. (eds.), Visual Psychophysics and Physiology. New York: Academic Press (1978).Google Scholar
  3. Fantz, R.L. Pattern vision in newborn infant. Science, 140:296–297 (1963).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Fogarty, T. and Reuben, R. Light-evoked cortical and retinal responses in premature infants. Arch. Ophthal, 81:454 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Frankenberg, W.K. and Dodds, J.B. Denver Developmental Screening Test. Boulder, Co.: University of Colorado Medical Center (1969).Google Scholar
  6. Gorman, J.J., Cogan, D.G. and Gillis, S.S. An apparatus for grading the visual acuity on the basis of optokinetic nystagmus. Pediatrics, 19:1088–1092 (1957).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. McGinnis, J.M. Eye-movements and optokinetic nystagmus in early infancy. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 8:321 (1930).Google Scholar
  8. Prechtl, H.F.R. The Neurological Examination of the Full Term Newborn Infant. Philadelphia, Pa.: J.B. Lippincott Co. (1977).Google Scholar
  9. Savitz, R., Valadian, I. and Reed, R. Vision Screening of the Pre-School Child. Children’s Bureau Publication No. 414, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education & Welfare, Washington, D.C.(1964).Google Scholar
  10. Sokol, S. Measurement of infant visual acuity from pattern reversal evoked potentials. Vision Research, 18:33–39 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Thomas, A., Chesni, Y. and Dargassies, S. “The Neurological Examination of the Infant.” MacKeith, Polani & Clayton-Jones (eds.). National Spastics Society, London W.I. U.K. (1960).Google Scholar
  12. Whipple, H. Sensory evoked response in man. Annals of New York Academy of Sciences, 112:1–546 (1964).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Spectrum Publications, Inc. 1981

Authors and Affiliations

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations