Except for the reflex pupillary reaction to light, responses to visual stimuli are considered to be indicative of cortical function in man. The pupillary constriction on exposure to a flash of light is automatic and even occurs in drowsiness and in sleep. This reflex is mediated by the mid brain and does not depend on cerebral hemisphere function. In contrast, all other responses to a visual stimulus, whether it be simply turning of the eyes towards a flash or reading a paragraph of printed material, involve the entire visual pathways in the brain including the visual cortex. To elicit the maximal reaction to a perceived light stimulus, the subject must be alert, interested and able to respond in a meaningful way.
KeywordsVisual Acuity Newborn Infant Optokinetic Nystagmus Snellen Chart Visual Motor Integration
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