Diabetes and atherosclerosis — conclusions
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Diabetes mellitus is associated with accelerated atherosclerosis. The association occurs in the absence of treatment of diabetes and is not influenced by treatment. The presence of diabetes removes the normal female protection against atherosclerosis. Risk factors have the same relationship to atherosclerosis in diabetics as in non-diabetics, but the increased incidence of atherosclerosis in diabetes is not entirely explained by an increased prevalence of risk factors. In non-diabetics, high plasma insulin levels are associated with an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease and insulin has actions on the arterial wall which may promote atherogenesis.