Advertisement

The effects of sex hormones on the arterial wall

Chapter
  • 43 Downloads

Abstract

In the past 40 years there have been a number of studies of the effect of sex hormones on the arterial wall. The earlier studies looked at the effect of administering sex hormones to whole animals which were often also fed high-fat diets. Later the direct effects of sex hormones on isolated arterial tissue or cultured arterial cells were investigated. The results have not always been consistent with each other or with clinical observations, and much still remains to be learnt about the actions of sex hormones on the arterial wall.

Keywords

Smooth Muscle Cell Arterial Wall Arterial Cell Aortic Lesion Testosterone Propionate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Ludden, J. B., Bruger, M. and Wright, I. S. (1942). Experimental atherosclerosis. IV. Effect of testosterone propionate and estradiol dipropionate on experimental atherosclerosis in rabbits. Arch. Pathol., 33, 58Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ludden, J. B., Bruger, M. and Wright, I. S. (1941). Effect of testosterone propionate and estradiol dipropionate on the cholesterol content of the blood and aorta of rabbits. Endocrinology, 28, 999CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bruger, M., Wright, I. S. and Wiland, J. (1943). Experimental atherosclerosis. V. Effect of testosterone propionate and estradiol dipropionate on the cholesterol content of the blood and the aorta in castrate female rabbits. Arch. Pathol., 36, 612Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lindsay, S., Lorenz, F. W., Entenman, C. and Chaikoff, I. L. (1946). Production of atheromatosis in the aorta of the chicken by administration of diethylstilbesterol. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 62, 315PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Horlick, L. and Katz, L. N. (1948). The effect of diethylstilbestrol on blood lipids and the development of atherosclerosis in chickens on a normal and low fat diet. J. Lab. Clin. Med., 33, 733PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Pick, R., Stamler, J., Rodbard, S. and Katz, L. N. (1952). The inhibition of coronary atherosclerosis by estrogens in cholesterol-fed chicks. Circulation, 6, 276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Pick, R., Stamler, J. and Katz, L. N. (1957). Effects of hypothyroidism on estrogen- induced inhibition of coronary atherogenesis in cholesterol-fed cockerels. Circ. Res., 5, 510PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Stamler, J., Pick, R. and Katz, L. N. (1960). Effect of insulin in the induction and regression of atherosclerosis in the chick. Circ. Res., 8, 572PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pick, R., Stamler, J., Rodbard, S. and Katz, L. N. (1959). Effects of testosterone and castration on cholesteremia and atherogenesis in chicks on high fat, high cholesterol diets. Circ. Res., 7, 202PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Moskowitz, M. S., Moskowitz, A. A., Bradford, W. L. and Wissler, R. W. (1956). Changes in serum lipids and coronary arteries of the rat in response to estrogen. Arch. Pathol., 61, 245Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fischer, G. M. (1972). In vivo effects of estradiol on collagen and elastin dynamics in rat aorta. Endocrinology, 91, 1227PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wolinsky, H. (1972). Effects of androgen treatment on the male rat aorta. J. Clin. Invest., 51, 2552PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sirek, O. V., Sirek, A. and Fikar, K. (1977). The effect of sex hormones on glycosaminoglycan content of canine aorta and coronary arteries. Atherosclerosis, 27, 227PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wolinsky, H. (1972). Effects of estrogen and progestogen treatment on the response of the aorta of male rats to hypertension. Circ. Res., 30, 341PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gammal, E. B. (1976). Intimal thickening in arteries of rats treated with synthetic sex hormones. Br. J. Exp. Pathol., 57, 248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gammal, E. B. and Zuk, A. (1980). Effect of ethinyl estradiol on endothelial permeability to 125I-labelled albumin in female rats. Exp. Mol. Pathol., 32, 91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Souadjian, J. V., Kottke, B. A. and Titus, J. L. (1968). Estrogen effects on spontaneous atherosclerosis. Experimental studies in white carneau pigeon. Arch. Pathol. 85, 463PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hanash, K. A., Kottke, B. A., Greene, L. F. and Titus, J. L. (1972). Effects of conjugated estrogens on spontaneous atherosclerosis in pigeons. Arch. Pathol., 93, 184PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Prichard, R. W., Clarkson, T. B. and Lofland, H. B. (1966). Estrogen in pigeon atherosclerosis. Estradiol valerate effects at several dose levels on cholesterol-fed male white carneau pigeons. Arch. Pathol. 82, 15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Subbiah, M. T. R. and Dicke, B. A. (1977). Effect of estrogens on the concentration and composition of arterial sterols and steryl esters in male white carneau pigeons. Atherosclerosis 27, 59PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    McGill, H. C., Jr, Axelrod, L. R., McMahan, C. A., Wigodsky, H. S. and Mott, G. E. (1977). Estrogens and experimental atherosclerosis in the baboon (Papio cynocephalus). Circulation, 56, 657PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kushwaha, R. S., Hazzard, W. R., Gagne, C., Chait, A. and Albers, J. J. (1977). Type III hyperlipoproteinemia: paradoxical hypolipidemic response to estrogen. Ann. Intern. Med., 87, 517PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kushwaha, R. S. and Hazzard, W. R. (1981). Exogenous estrogens attenuate dietary hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis in the rabbit. Metabolism, 30, 359PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Floren, C.-H., Kushwaha, R. S., Hazzard, W. R. and Albers, J. J. (1981). Estrogen- induced increase in uptake of cholesterol-rich very low density lipoproteins in perfused rabbit liver. Metabolism, 30, 367PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Zilversmit, D. B. (1973). A proposal linking atherosclerosis to the interaction of endothelial lipoprotein lipase with triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Circ. Res., 33, 633PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Amos, S., Odake, K., Ambrus, C. M. and Ambrus, J. L. (1969). Effect of sex hormones on the serum-induced thrombosis phenomenon. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA, 62, 150PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Uzunova, A., Ramey, E. and Ramwell, P. W. (1976). Effect of testosterone, sex and age on experimentally induced arterial thrombosis. Nature (London), 261, 712CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Uzunova, A. D., Ramey, E. R. and Ramwell, P. W. (1978). Gonadal hormones and pathogenesis of occlusive arterial thrombosis. Am. J. Physiol., 234, H454PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Uzunova, A. D., Ramey, E. R. and Ramwell, P. W. (1977). Arachidonate-induced thrombosis in mice: effects of gender or testosterone and estradiol administration. Prostaglandins, 13, 995PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Johnson, M., Ramey, E. and Ramwell, P. W. (1977). Androgen-mediated sensitivity in platelet aggregation. Am. J. Physiol., 232, H381PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Mitchell, H. C. and Williams, M. A. (1974). Effect of estrogens and a progestogen on platelet adhesiveness and aggregation in rabbits. J. Lab. Clin. Med., 83, 79PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Johnson, M., Ramey, E. and Ramwell, P. W. (1975). Sex and age differences in human platelet aggregation. Nature (London), 253, 355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Karpati, L., Chow, F. P. R., Woollard, M. L., Hutton, R. A. and Dandona, P. (1980). Prostacyclin-like activity in the female rat thoracic aorta and the inferior vena cava after ethinyloestradiol and norethisterone. Clin. Sci., 59, 369PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Chang, W., Nakao, J., Orimo, H. and Murota, S. (1980). Stimulation of prostacyclin biosynthetic activity by estradiol in rat aortic smooth muscle cells in culture. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 619, 107PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Chang, W.-C., Nakao, J., Orimo, H. and Murota, S.-I. (1980). Stimulation of prostaglandin cyclooxygenase and prostacyclin synthetase activities by estradiol in rat aortic smooth muscle cells. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 620, 472PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Chang, W.-C., Nakao, J., Neichi, T., Orimo, H. and Murota, S.-I. (1981). Effects of estradiol on the metabolism of arachidonic acid by aortas and platelets in rats. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 664, 291PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Taggart, H. and Stout, R. W. (1980). Control of DNA synthesis in cultured vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells — response to serum, platelet-deficient serum, lipidfree serum, insulin and oestrogens. Atherosclerosis, 37, 549PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Jung-Testas, I. and Baulieu, E.-E. (1979). Effects of sex steroids and anti-hormones on growth adhesiveness and receptors of L-929 cells cultured in serum-containing and serumfree media. Exp. Cell Res., 119, 75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Bagdade, J. D. and Cruz, R. (1977). ‘The Pill’ and the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis: serum factors stimulate arterial smooth muscle cell and fibroblast proliferation. Circulation, 55/56, suppl. III-101Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Subbaiah, P. V. and Bagdade, J. D. (1980). Oral contraceptive steroids and atherosclerosis: lipogenesis in human arterial smooth muscle cells and dermal fibroblasts in presence of lipoprotein-deficient serum from oral contraceptive users. Artery, 6, 437PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    King, R. J. B., Kaye, A. M. and Shodell, M. J. (1977). Co-purification of an oestrogen- induced protein from rat uterus and a factor able to stimulate DNA synthesis in cultured cells. Exp. Cell Res., 109, 1PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Sirbasku, D. A. (1978). Estrogen induction of growth factors specific for hormone- responsive mammary, pituitary and kidney tumor cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA, 75, 3786PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Malinow, M. R., Moguilevsky, J. A., Lema, B. and Bur, G. E. (1963). Vascular and extravascular radioactivity after the injection of estradiol 6, 7H3 in the human being. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 23, 206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Chobanian, A. V., Brecher, P. I., Lille, R. D. and Wotiz, H. H. (1968). Metabolism of sex hormones in the aortic wall. J. Lipid Res., 9, 701PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Stumpf, W. E., Sar, M. and Aumuller, G. (1977). The heart: a target organ for estradiol. Science, 196, 319PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Colburn, P. and Buonassisi, V. (1978). Estrogen-binding sites in endothelial cell cultures. Science, 201, 817PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Nakao, J., Chang, W.-C., Murota, S.-I. and Orimo, H. (1981). Estradiol-binding sites in rat aortic smooth muscle cells in culture. Atherosclerosis, 38, 75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Harder, D. R. and Coulson, P. B. (1979). Estrogen receptors and effects of estrogen on membrane electrical properties of coronary vascular smooth muscle. J. Cell Physiol., 100, 375PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    McGill, H. C., Jr and Sheridan, P. J. (1981). Nuclear uptake of sex steroid hormones in the cardiovascular system of the baboon. Circ. Res., 48, 238PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Sheridan, P. J. and Buchanan, J. M. (1980). The effects of opiates on androgen binding in the forebrain of the rat. Int. J. Fertil., 25, 36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Lin, A. L., McGill, H. C., Jr and Shain, S. A. (1981). Hormone receptors of the baboon cardiovascular system. Biochemical characterization of aortic cytoplasmic androgen receptors. Arteriosclerosis, 1, 257PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Stout, R. W. (1982). Hormone-endothelial interactions. In Cryer, A. (ed.) Biochemical Interactions at the Endothelium. (Amsterdam: Elsevier/North Holland; in press)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© R. W. Stout 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Queen’s University of BelfastUK

Personalised recommendations