Ground subsidence and mine backfill
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Extraction of mineral resources from the ground has caused surface subsidence and caving in many areas. Past caving problems due to underground mining have sponsored more responsible regulations, but the recognition that base minerals are depleting resources has produced a demand for higher extraction ratios with less ore left underground to support mine openings. Waste materials (waste rock and mine tailings) have been employed in underground cut-and-fill operations for centuries to provide a working floor, but it is only in the last two decades that the real potential of mine backfill in providing ground control is being realized. The use of engineered backfills in a stope-and-pillar type of operation has made it possible to approach full extraction safely with economical high production mining methods while controlling immediate and future subsidence.
KeywordsUnconfined Compressive Strength Hanging Wall Cement Content Waste Rock Ground Subsidence
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