Flame retardants: tin compounds

  • P. A. Cusack
Part of the Polymer Science and Technology Series book series (POLS, volume 1)


Tin compounds have been known as flame retardants since the midnineteenth century, when processes based on the in situ precipitation of hydrous tin(rv) oxide were developed to impart flame-resist properties to cotton and other cellulosic materials:


tin tin oxide zinc hydroxystannate zinc stannate organotin compounds antimony trioxide alumina trihydrate magnesium hydroxide titanium dioxide molybdenum trioxide iron oxide zinc borate alumina halogenated flame retardants metal halides thermal analysis Mössbauer spectroscopy fire-retardant mechanism ultrafine powders coated fillers 


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    Touval, I. (1972) The use of stannic oxide hydrate as a flame retardant Synergist. Journal of Fire and Flammability, 3, 130–143.Google Scholar
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    Cusack, P.A. and Karpel, S. (1991) Zinc stannates: novel tin-based fire retardants. Tin and Its Uses, 165, 1–6.Google Scholar
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    Chaplin, D. (1992) New and improved flame retardants of low hazard. Proceedings of Flame Retardants’ 92 Conference, Elsevier Applied Science, London and New York, pp. 198–210.Google Scholar

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© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1998

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  • P. A. Cusack

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