Flame retardants: intumescent systems

  • Giovanni Camino
Part of the Polymer Science and Technology Series book series (POLS, volume 1)


Intumescent fire retardant additives undergo a thermal degradation process on heating, which produces a thermally stable, foamed, multicellular residue called ‘intumescent char’. When these substances are added to a polymeric material which is later involved in a fire, they produce an intumescent char which accumulates on the surface, while the polymer is consumed, providing insulation to the underlying materials and partially protecting it from the action of the flame.


fire combustion coating char pyrolysis polyhydric compound amide amine inorganic acid blowing action foam dehydration phosphorylation dehydrocellulose intumescence melamine piperazine 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Vandersall, H.L. J. Fire Flammability, 2, 97 (1971).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kay, M., Price, A.F. and Lavery, I. J. Fire Retardant Chem., 6, 69 (1979).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Camino G. and Costa, L. Mechanism of intumescence in fire retardant polymers. Reviews in Inorganic Chemistry, 8, 69–100 (1996).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Camino, G., Costa, L. and Martinasso, G. Intumescent fire retardant systems. Polymer Degradation and Stability, 23, 359–376 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Camino, G. Fire retardant polymeric materials in Atmospheric Oxidation and Antioxidants (ed. G. Scott) Elsevier, Amsterdam (1993) Chapter 10, 461–494.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ballistreri, A., Montaudo, G., Scaporrino, E., Puglisi, C., Vitalini, D. and Cucinella, S. J Polym. Sci., Polym Chemi. Ed., 26, 2113 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Myers, R.E. and Licursi, E. J. Fire Sci., 3, 415 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giovanni Camino

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations