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Flame retardants: halogen-free systems (including phosphorus additives)

  • John Davis
Part of the Polymer Science and Technology Series book series (POLS, volume 1)

Abstract

There are three essential conditions to be met if a polymer, once ignited, is to continue burning. There must be a supply of heat to the bulk polymer, a generation of fuel (typically volatile decomposition products) and there must be a flame. Halogen-based systems act by a well-documented flame poisoning mechanism in the vapour phase. The alternative halogen-free systems, which encompass a wide variety of additives, tend to act by mechanisms which disrupt heat flow and the supply of fuel to the flame. Here the mechanisms are not always understood in great detail but two broad types of flame retardant action can be defined.

Keywords

endothermic decomposition alumina trihydrate magnesium hydroxide phosphorus organophosphorus intumescent flame retardants melamine 

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References

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    Troitzsch, J. (1990) International Plastics Flammability Handbook, 2nd edn, Hanser, Munich.Google Scholar
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    Camino, G. and Costa, L. (1986) Mechanism of intumescence in fire retardant polymers. Reviews in Inorganic Chemistry, 8(1, 2), 69–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Wolf, R. (1986) Phosphorus-containing fire retardants for transparent plastics and film. Kunstoffe, 76(10), 943–947.Google Scholar
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    Weil, E.D. and Choudary, V. (1995) Flame-retarding plastics and elastomers with melamine. Journal of Fire Sciences, 13, 104–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • John Davis

There are no affiliations available

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