This chapter deals with the basic concepts of positioning at sea; we start with an introduction to least squares, on which all modem positioning computations are based, and then develop the various formulae used in the computations.


Observation Equation Central Meridian Grid Convergence Source Shaping Vessel Position 
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© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. P. Loweth

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