Dynamic Modelling and Locomotion Control of Biped Autonomous Robots

  • T. E. Krikochoritis
  • C. S. Tzafestas
  • S. G. Tzafestas
Part of the International Series on Microprocessor-Based and Intelligent Systems Engineering book series (ISCA, volume 18)


The field of legged autonomous robots has received over the years a great attention, and a number of interesting types of biped and multilegged robots are now available [1,2]. Bipeds represent a class of legged robots that attempt to imitate the human style of locomotion. The simplest model which has been used for the study of some basic features of human locomotion is the inverted pendulum [3,4]. More sophisticated models, with many degrees of freedom were introduced and used after 1980 [5–13]. However, we are still far away of designing biped robots that possess the dexterity and flexibility of human walking which is controlled by nearly three hundred and fifty muscle pairs. Some examples of actually walking biped robots are:BIPER-3 robot [7], KENKYAKU-1 [8,9], KENKYAKU-2 [10], BLR-G1 [11], BLR-G2 [12] and WASEDALEG-12 [13]. BIPER-3 is a simple 3-link robot (torso and two simple legs), KENKYAKU-1 is a 5-link robot, KENKYAKU-2 (weight 40kg, height 1.10m) is a 7-link biped, and BLR-G1/BLR-G2 are 9-link bipeds with interesting anthropomorphic features (BLR-G2 has 25Kg weight and 0.97m height). WASEDALEG-12 belongs to the Waseda University biped series and has a weight of 107kg and height 1.80m. This biped is equipped with sophisticated force sensors on its feet and joints, and has realized a maximum stride of 0.30m and a minimum step time of 1.3sec.


Tracking Error Biped Robot Human Walking Biped Locomotion Joint Angular Velocity 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. E. Krikochoritis
    • 1
  • C. S. Tzafestas
    • 1
  • S. G. Tzafestas
    • 1
  1. 1.Intelligent Robotics and Automation Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringNational Technical University of AthensAthensGreece

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