Advertisement

Somatic Embryogenesis in Eucalyptus grandis and E. dunni

  • M. P. Watt
  • F. C. Blakeway
  • R. Termignoni
  • S. M. Jain
Part of the Forestry Sciences book series (FOSC, volume 59)

Abstract

The genus Eucalyptus belongs to the family Myrtaceae, subgroup Leptospermoideae. There are 450–700 eucalyptus species and varieties, varying in size from large broad-leafed trees to shrub-like mallees. The most distinguishing taxonomic feature of the genus is the presence of a fused calyx and/or corolla into an operculum. E. grandis and E. dunni are quite similar in terms of gross morphological features. In E. grandis the operculum is hemispherical, the inflorescence is an umbel, the peduncle is distinctly flattened and the fruit capsule is 5–11 mm in diameter. The leaves are smooth, the adaxial surface is darker than the abaxial one and the mature leaves are lanceolate, often falcate. The annual bark exfoliations are long and fibrous. In E. dunnii (Dunn’s white gum), the operculum is also hemispherical, the inflorescence is simple, the peduncle is flattened and the fruit is 5–8 mm in diameter. The leaves of the adult plants are green, concolorlous, lanceolate to narrow lanceolate. The bark is rough, brownish, flaky and more or less corky at the base, commonly with long ribbons of decorticating bark hanging from branches.

Keywords

Somatic Embryo Somatic Embryogenesis Cell Suspension Culture Leaf Explants Embryogenic Cell 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ammirato, RV. 1987. Embryogenesis. In: Handbook of Plant Cell Culture, Vol. 1, pp. 82–123. (eds. D.A. Evans, W.R. Sharp, P.V. Ammirato and Y. Yamada). New York: Macmillan Publishing Co.Google Scholar
  2. Attree, S.M., D. Moore, V.K. Sawhney and L.C. Fowke. 1991. Enhanced maturation and desiccation tolerance of white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) somatic embryos effects of a non-plasmolyzing water stress and abscisic acid. Ann Bot. 68: 519–525.Google Scholar
  3. Becwar, M.R. 1993. Conifer somatic embryogenesis and clonal forestry. In: Clonal Forestry I, Genetics and Biotechnology, pp. 200–223. (eds. M.R. Ahuja and W.J. Libby). Berlin: Springer-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beevers, L. and R.H. Hageman. 1980. Nitrate and nitrite reduction. In: The Biochemistry of Plants, Vol. 5. pp. 115–168. (ed. B.J. Miflin). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  5. Bertolucci, F.L.G. and R.M. Penchel. 1993. Clonagem do eucalipto: efeitos sobre a produtividade e qualidade da madeira. Cinêia Hoje Supl. 16: 16–21.Google Scholar
  6. Blakesley, D., N. Pask, G.G. Henshaw and M.F. Fay. 1996. Biotechnology and the conservation of forest genetic resources: in vitro strategies and cryopreservation. Plant Growth Reg. 20: 11–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blakeway, F.C., B. Herman and M.R Watt. 1993. Establishment of cell suspension cultures of Eucalyptus grandis and E. grandis × camaldulensis. S Afr For J. 166: 17–26.Google Scholar
  8. Burns, J.A. and H.Y. Wezstein. 1995. Development and germination of pecan somatic embryos derived from liquid cultures. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol. 31: 72–78.Google Scholar
  9. Cheema, G.S. 1989. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from cell suspension and tissue culture of mature himalayan poplar (Populus ciliata). Plant Cell Rep. 8: 124–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cornu, D. and M.F. Michel. 1987. Bacterial contaminants in shoot cultures of Prunus avium L. Choice and phytotoxicity of antibiotics. Acta Horticult. 212: 83–86.Google Scholar
  11. Danby, S., F. Berger, D.J. Howitt, A.R. Wilson, S. Dawson and C. Leifert. 1994. Fungal contaminants of Primula, Coffea, Musa and Iris tissue cultures. In: Physiology, Growth and Development of Plants in Culture. pp. 398–403. (eds. P.J. Lumsden, J.R. Nicholas and W.J. Davies). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  12. Denison, N.P. and J.E. Kietzka. 1993a. The use and importance of hybrid intensive forestry in South Africa. S Afr For J. 165: 55–60Google Scholar
  13. Denison, N.P. and J.E. Kietzka. 1993b. The development and utilisation of vegetative propagation in Mondi for commercial afforestation programmes. S Afr For J. 165: 47–54.Google Scholar
  14. Denison, N.R and D.R. Quaile. 1987. The applied clonal eucalypt programme in Mondi Forests. S Afr For J. 142: 60–66.Google Scholar
  15. Dunstan, D.I., T.D. Bethune, J.M. Schnaider and C.A. Block. 1994. PEG 400 stimulates somatic embryo maturation and endogenous ABA in Picea glauca × engelmannii. Abstracts VIIIth International Congress on Plant Tissue Culture, Firenze, Abstract no. S11-57, P. 189.Google Scholar
  16. Evans, D.A., W.R. Sharp and C.E. Flick. 1981. Growth and behaviour of cell cultures, embryogenesis and organogenesis. In: Plant Tissue Culture, Methods and Applications in Agriculture, pp 45–113. (ed. T.A. Thorpe). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  17. Falkiner, F.R. 1990. The criteria for choosing an antibiotic for control of bacteria in plant tissue culture. Int Ass Plant Tiss Cult Newsl. 60: 13–23.Google Scholar
  18. Franclet, A. and T. Boulay. 1982. Micropropagation of frost resistant Eucalyptus clones. Aust For Res. 13: 83–89.Google Scholar
  19. Gamborg, O.L., T. Murashige, T.A. Thorpe and I.K. Vasil. 1976. Plant tissue culture media. In Vitro 12: 473–478.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. George, E.F. 1993. Plant Propagation by Tissue Culture. Part I, The Technology. Edington: Exegetics Ltd.Google Scholar
  21. George, E.F. 1996. Plant Propagation by Tissue Culture. Part 2, In Practice. Edington: Exegetics Ltd.Google Scholar
  22. George, E.F., Putoock, D.J.M. and H.J. George. 1987. Plant Tissue Culture Media. Volume I, Formulations and Uses. Edington: Exegetics Ltd.Google Scholar
  23. Gray, D.J. 1987. Quiescence in monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous somatic embryos induced by dehydration. HortScience. 22: 810–814.Google Scholar
  24. Gupta P.K., Mascarenhas, A.F. and V. Jaganathan. 1981. Tissue culture of forest trees — clonal propagation of mature trees of Eucalyptus citriodora Hook by tissue culture. Plant Sci Lett. 20: 195–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gupta, P.K., R. Timmis and A.F. Mascarenhas]. 1991. Field performance of micropropagated forestry species. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol. 27: 159–164Google Scholar
  26. Haines, R. 1994. Biotechnology in Forest Tree Improvement with Special Reference to Developing Countries. FAO Forestry Paper 118, Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, Rome.Google Scholar
  27. Hatanaka, T, E. Sawabe, T. Azuma, N. Uchida and T. Yasuda. 1995. The role of ethylene in somatic embryogenesis from leaf discs of Coffea canephora. Plant Sci. 107: 199–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Heinze, B. and J. Schmidt. 1995. Monitoring genetic fidelity vs somaclonal variation in Norway spruce (Picea abies) somatic embryogenesis by RAPD analysis. Euphytica. 85: 341–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Jain, S.M. and K. Ishii. 1998. Recent advances in somatic embryogenesis in forest trees. In: Recent Advances in Biotechnology for Conservation and Management. (eds. S.H. Mantell, S. Bruns, C. Tragardh and A.M. Viana). Stockholm: International Foundation for Science, in press.Google Scholar
  30. Jain, S.M., P.K. Gupta and R.J. Newton. 1995. Somatic Embryogenesis in Woody Plants. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Khuspe, P. K. Gupta, D.K. Kulkarni, U. Mehta and A.F. Mascarenhas. 1987. Increased biomass production by tissue culture of eucalyptus. Can J For Res. 17: 1361–1363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Laksmi Sita, G. 1981. Tissue culture of Eucalyptus species. In: Proc. COSTED Symposium on Tissue Culture of Economically Important Plants, pp 180–184, (ed. A.N. Rao), Singapore.Google Scholar
  33. Laksmi Sita, G., S. Rani and K.S. Rao. 1986. Propagation of Eucalyptus grandis by tissue culture. In: Eucalyptus in India. Past, Present and Future, pp 318–321, (eds. J.K. Sharma, C.T.S. Nair, S. Kedharnath and S. Kondas). Proceedings National Seminar Kerala Forest Research Institute, Peechi, Kerala, India.Google Scholar
  34. leRoux, J.J. and J. van Staden. 1991. Micropropagation and tissue culture of Eucalyptus — a review. Tree Physiol. 9: 435–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Leifert, C., W.M. Waites and J. Nicolas. 1989. Bacterial contaminants of micropropagated plant cultures. J Appl Bacteriol. 67: 353–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lutz, J.D., J.R. Wong, J. Rowe, D.M. Tricoli and R.H. Lawrence. 1985. Somatic embryogenesis for mass cloning of crop plants. In: Tissue culture in Forestry and Agriculture, pp. 105–116, (eds. R.R. Henke, R.W. Hughes, M.P. Constantin and A. Hollaender). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  37. Mathews, H. and H.Y. Wetzstein. 1993. A revised protocol for efficient regeneration of somatic embryos and acclimatization of plantlets of pecan., Carya illinoensis. Plant Sci. 91: 103–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. McComb, J.A. and I.J. Bennett. 1986. Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus spp.). In: Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry, Vol. 1, Trees, pp. 340–362, (ed. Y.P.S. Bajaj). Berlin: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  39. Merkle, S.A. 1995. Strategies for dealing with limitations of somatic embryogenesis in hardwood trees. Plant Tiss Cult Biotechnol. 1: 112–121.Google Scholar
  40. Merkle, S.A., A.T. Wiecko, R.J. Stak and H.E. Sommer. 1990. Maturation and conversion of Liliodendron tulipifera somatic embryos. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol. 26: 1086–1093.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Michler, C.H. 1995. Somatic embryogenesis in Populus spp. In: Somatic Embryogenesis in Woody Plants, Vol. 2, pp. 89–97, (eds. S.M. Jain, P.K. Gupta and R.J. Newton). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Michler, C.H. and E.O. Bauer. 1991. High frequency somatic embryogenesis from leaf tissue of Populus spp. Plant Sci. 77: 111–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Montoro, P., H. Etienne and M.P. Carron]. 1995a. Relation between nitrogen uptake, amino acid contents and embryogenic intensity of rubber tree calli. J Plant Nutr. 18: 1693–CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Montoro, P., H. Etienne and M.P. Carron. 1995b. Effect of calcium on callus friability and somatic embryogenesis in Hevea brasiliensis Mull. Arg: relations with callus mineral nutrition, nitrogen metabolism and water parameters. J Exp Bot. 283: 255–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Muralidharan, E.M. and A.F. Mascarenhas. 1987. In vitro plantlet formation by organogenesis in E. camaldulensis and by somatic embryogenesis in Eucalyptus citriodora. Plant Cell Rep. 6: 256–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Muralidharan, E.M. and A.F. Mascarenhas. 1995. Somatic embryogenesis in Eucalyptus. In: Somatic Embryogenesis in Woody Plants, Vol 2, pp 23–40, (eds. S.M. Jain, P.K. Gupta and R.J. Newton). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Muralidharan, E.M., P.K. Gupta and A.F. Mascarenhas. 1989. Plantlet production through high frequency somatic embryogenesis in long term cultures of Eucalyptus citriodora. Plant Cell Rep. 8: 41–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Murashige, T. and T. Skoog. 1962. A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue culture. Physiol Plant. 15: 473–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Niedz, R.P. 1994. Growth of embryogenie sweet orange callus on media varying in the ratio of nitrate to ammonium nitrogen. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult. 39: 1–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ota, K. and Y. Yamamoto. 1989. Promotion of assimilation of ammonium ions by simultaneous application of nitrate and ammonium ions in radish plants. Plant Cell Physiol. 30: 365–371.Google Scholar
  51. Ouyang, Q., H.S. Peng and Q.Q. Li. 1981. Studies on the development of embryoids from Eucalyptus callus. Sci Silvae Sin. 17: 1–7.Google Scholar
  52. Park, Y.G. and S.H. Son. 1989. In vitro organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis from punctured leaf of Populus nigra × P. maximowiczii. Plant Cell Tissue Org Cult. 15: 95–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Pollock, K., D.G. Barfield and R. Shields. 1983. The toxicity of antibiotics to plant cell cultures. Plant Cell Rep. 2: 36–39.Google Scholar
  54. Rani, V., S. Parida and N. Raida. 1995. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers for genetic analysis in micropropagated plants of Populus deltoides Marsh. Plant Cell Rep. 14: 459–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Redenbaugh, K., B.D. Paasch, J.W. Nichol, M.E. Kossler, P.R. Viss and K.A. Walker. 1986. Somatic seeds: encapsulation of a sexual plant embryos. Bio/Technology. 4: 797–801.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Redenbaugh, K., D. Slate, P.R. Viss and B.L Fujii. 1987. Encapsulation of somatic embryos in synthetic seed coats. HortScience. 22: 803–809.Google Scholar
  57. Reed, B.M. and P. Transprasert. 1995. Detection and control of bacterial contaminants of plant tissue cultures. A review of recent literature. Plant Tissue Cult Biotechnol. 1: 137–141.Google Scholar
  58. Rockwood, D.L. and E.L. Warrag. 1994. Field performance of micropropagated macro-propagated and seed-derived propagules of three Eucalyptus grandis ortets. Plant Cell Rep. 13: 628–631.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Roberts, D.R., E.B. Webster, B.S. Flinn, W.R. Lazaroff and D.R. Cyr. 1993. Somatic embryogenesis in spruce. In: SynSeeds: Application of Synthetic Seeds to Crop Improvement, pp. 427–452, (eds. K. Redenbaugh). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  60. Rout, G.R., S. Samantaray and P. Das. 1995. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from callus culture of Acacia catechu — a multipurpose leguminous tree. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult. 42: 283–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Ruaud, J.N., K. Churchill and S. Pepper. 1997. Somatic embryogenesis initiation in Eucalyptus nitens. Hort Acta Hort. 447: 185–187.Google Scholar
  62. Rugini, E. and G. Caricato. 1995. Somatic embryogenesis and plant recovery from mature tissues of olive cultivars (Olea europaea L.) ‘Canino’ and ‘Moraiolo’. Plant Cell Rep. 14: 257–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Sharp, W.R., D.A. Evans and M.R. Sondahl. 1982. Application of somatic embryogenesis to crop improvement. In: Plant Tissue Culture, Proc. 5th Intern. Cong. Plant Tissue and Cell Culture, pp. 759–762, (ed. A. Fujiwara). Japanese Assoc. for Plant Tissue Culture.Google Scholar
  64. Shields, R., S.J. Robinson and P.A. Anslow]. 1984. Use of fungicides in plant tissue culture. Plant Cell Rep. 3: 33–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Steward, F.C., M.O. Mapes and K. Mears. 1958. Growth and organized development of cultured cells. Organization in cultures grown from freely suspended cells. Am J Bot. 45: 705–708.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Termignoni, R.R. 1998. Patente de invenção do processo: clonagem de plantas adultas selecionadas de Eucalyptus spp. pelo processo de regeneração in vitro pro embriogênese somática. Depositario: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS). Inventor: Profa. Dra. Regina Ramos Termignoni. Patent No. PI 9801485-4 INPI.Google Scholar
  67. Termignoni, R.R., P-J. Wang and C-Y. Hu. 1996. Somatic embryo induction in Eucalyptus dunnii. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult. 45: 129–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Termignoni, R.R, C.P. Jobin and L. Morais. 1998. Somatic embryogenesis in Eucalyptus spp.: regeneration systems from elite clones. IX International Congress on Plant Tissue and cell Culture, Jerusalem, Israel, June 14–19, Book of abstracts, p. 114.Google Scholar
  69. Thomas, C.M., P. Vos, M. Zabeau, D.A. Jones, K.A. Norcott, B.P. Chadwick and J.D.G. Jones. 1995. Identification of amplified restriction fragment polymorphism (AFLP) tightly linked to the tomato Cf-9 gene for resistance to Cladosporium fulvum. Plant J. 8: 785–794.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Thorpe, T.A., I.S. Harry and P.P. Kumar. 1991. Application of micropropagation to forestry. In: Micropropagation: Technology and Applications, pp. 311–336, (eds. P.C. Debergh and R.H. Zimmerman). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  71. Tisserat, B. 1985. Embryogenesis, organogenesis and plant regeneration. In: Plant Cell Culture — A Practical Approach, pp. 79–105, (ed. R.A. Dixon). Oxford: IRL Press.Google Scholar
  72. Watt, M.P., F.C. Blakeway, C.F. Cresswell and B. Herman. 1991 Somatic embryogenesis in Eucalyptus grandis. S Afr For J. 157: 159–165.Google Scholar
  73. Watt, M.P., E.A. Duncan, M. Ing, F.C. Blakeway and B. Herman. 1995. Field performance of micropropagated Eucalyptus hybrids. S Afr For J. 173: 17–21.Google Scholar
  74. Watt, M.P., B.A Gauntlett and F.C. Blakeway. 1996. Effect of anti-fungal agents on in vitro cultures of Eucalyptus grandis. S Afr For J. 175: 23–28.Google Scholar
  75. Zobel, B.J. 1993. Clonal forestry in the Eucalypts. In: Clonal Forestry II, Conservation and Application, pp. 139–148, (eds. M.R. Ahuja and W.J. Libby). Berlin: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. P. Watt
    • 1
  • F. C. Blakeway
    • 2
  • R. Termignoni
    • 3
  • S. M. Jain
    • 4
  1. 1.Biology DepartmentUniversity of NatalDurbanSouth Africa
  2. 2.Mondi ForestsHiltonSouth Africa
  3. 3.Dep. de Botanica e Centro de Biotecnologia do Estado do SulUniversidade Federal do Rio Grande do SulPorto AlegreBrazil
  4. 4.Department of Plant ProductionUniversity of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland

Personalised recommendations