Advertisement

Genetic Transformation in Conifers

  • S. C. Minocha
  • R. Minocha
Part of the Forestry Sciences book series (FOSC, volume 59)

Abstract

Several attempts at the genetic improvement of tree species have been made, but in comparison with crop plants the efforts as well as the results have been rather limited. The most commonly used approaches have involved selection of superior genotypes from natural outbred populations, mutations, and intra- and inter-specific hybridization under controlled conditions. While the conventional methods have proven remarkably successful in yielding improved genotypes that could be stabilized by back crossing, the techniques of cloning, marker-aided selection, and genetic engineering when integrated with the conventional breeding programs, will dramatically improve genetic gains. Conventional methods of genetic improvement involve a recombination of pre-existing gene pools within a limited range of sexually compatible taxa. The process of backcrossing and selection takes several generations before a desired set of genes can be transferred to a selected species. Genetic manipulation through recombinant DNA permits us to cross the barriers of incompatibility, not only among species and genera but also among kingdoms. Genetic engineering provides new tools for mixing genetic information in plants from a vast pool of existing genes as well as genes designed by human intervention, i.e. synthetic gene sequences. Furthermore, undesirable genes in the plant genome can be selectively silenced in the target tissues by the antisense approach (Bourque, 1995; Lee and Douglas, 1997). Site-specific mutagenesis, homologous recombination, and the use of specific promoters provide a precise means of controlling specific gene expression and its manipulation to achieve optimal genetic improvements.

Keywords

Transgenic Plant Somatic Embryogenesis Genetic Engineering Genetic Transformation Zygotic Embryo 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allen, G.C., G. Hall, Jr., S. Michalowski, W. Newman, S. Spiker, A.K. Weissinger and W.F. Thompson. 1993. High level transgene expression in plant cells: Effects of a strong scaffold attachment region from tobacco. Plant Cell. 8: 899–913.Google Scholar
  2. Anzai, H., K. Yoneyama and I. Yamaguchi. 1989. Transgenic tobacco resistant to a bacterial disease by the detoxification of a pathogenic toxin. Mol Gen Gent. 219: 492–494.Google Scholar
  3. Arioli, T., J.E. Burn, A.S. Betzner, and R.E. Williamson. 1998. Response: How many cellulose synthase-like gene products actually make cellulose. Trends Plant Sci. 3: 165–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aronen, T., H. Häggman and A. Hohtola. 1994. Transient β-glucuronidase expression in Scots pine tissues derived from mature trees. Can J For Res. 24: 2006–2011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aronen, T., A. Hohtola, H. Laukkanen and H. Häggman. 1995. Seasonal changes in the transient expression of a 35S CaMV-GUS gene construct introduced into Scots pine buds. Tree Physiol. 15: 65–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Atanasova, R., N. Favet, F. Martz, B. Chabbert, M.-T. Tollier, B. Montis, B. Fritig and M. Legrand. 1995. Altered lignin composition in transgenic tobacco expressing O-methyltransferase sequences in sense and antisense orientation. Plant J. 8: 465–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bartels, D. and D. Nelson. 1994. Approaches to improve stress tolerance using molecular genetics. Plant Cell Environ. 17: 659–667.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bastola, D.R. and S.C. Minocha. 1995. Increased putrescine biosynthesis through transfer of mouse ornithine decarboxylase cDNA in carrot promotes somatic embryogenesis. Plant Physiol. 109: 63–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bekkaoui, F., M. Pilon, E. Laine, D.S.S. Raju, W.L. Crosby and D.I. Dunstan. 1988. Transient gene expression in electroporated Picea glaucai protoplasts. Plant Cell Rep. 6: 476–479.Google Scholar
  10. Bekkaoui, F., R.S.S. Datla, M. Pilon, T.E. Tautorus, W.L. Crosby and D.I. Dunstan. 1990. The effects of promoter on transient expression in conifer cell lines. Theor Appl Genet. 79: 353–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bekkaoui, F., T.E. Tautorus and D.I. Dunstan. 1995. Gymnosperm protoplasts. In: Somatic Embryogenesis in Woody Plants. Vol 1. pp. 167–191. (eds. S.M. Jain, P.K. Gupta and R.J. Newton). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  12. Bohlmann, H.and K. Apel. 1991. Thionins. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol. 42: 227–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bohnert, H.J., D.E. Nelson and R.G. Jensen. 1995. Adaptations to environmental stresses. Plant Cell. 7:1099–1111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bommineni, V.R., R.N. Chibbar, R.S.S. Datla and E.W.T. Tsang. 1993. Transformation of white spruce (Picea glauca) somatic embryos by microprojectile bombardment. Plant Cell Rep. 13: 17–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Boudet, A.M., C. Lapierre and J. Grima-Pettenati. 1995. Biochemistry and molecular biology of lignification. New Phytol. 129: 203–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bourque, J.E. 1995. Antisense strategies for gene manipulation in plants. Plant Sci. 105: 125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Broglie, R., K. Broglie, I. Chiet, D. Roby and M. Holliday. 1991. Chitinase expression in transgenic plants: A molecular approach to fungal disease resistance. J Cell Biol. Suppl. 15A: 9.Google Scholar
  18. Brown, R.M. Jr, I.M. Saxena and K. Kudlicka. 1996. Cellulose biosynthesis in higher plants. Trends Plant Sci. 1: 149–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Brunke, K. and R. Meeusen. 1991. Insect control with genetically engineered crops. Trends Biotechnol: 9: 197–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Campbell, M.M. and R.R. Sederoff. 1996. Variation in lignin content and composition. Plant Physiol. 110:3–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Charest, P.J., N. Calero, D. Lachance, R.S.S. Datla, L.C. Duchesne and E.W.T. Tsang. 1993. Microprojectile-DNA delivery in conifer species: factors affecting assessment of transient gene expression using the β-glucuronidase reporter gene. Plant Cell Rep. 12: 189–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Charest, P.J., Y. Devantier and D. Lachance. 1996. Stable genetic transformation of Picea mariana (black spruce) via particle bombardment. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant. 32: 91–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chiang, H.H. and A.M. Dandekar. 1995. Regulation of proline accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. during development and response to desiccation. Plant Cell Environ. 18: 1280–1290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Chibbar, R.N. and K.K. Kartha. 1994. Transformation of plant cells by bombardment with microprojectiles. In: Biotechnological Applications of Plant Cultures. pp. 37–60. (eds. P.D. Shargool and T.T. Ngo). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  25. Chrispeels, M.J. and C. Maurel. 1994. Aquaporins: The molecular basis of facilitated water movement through living plant cells. Plant Physiol. 105: 9–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Christou, P. 1994. Gene transfer to plants via particle bombardment. In: Plant Molecular Biology Manual. pp. A2: 1–15. (eds. S.B. Gelvin and R.A. Schilpercort). Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  27. Christou, P. 1996. Transformation technology. Trends Plant Sci. 1: 423–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Clapham, D. and I. Eckberg. 1986. Induction of tumors by various strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens on Abies nordmanniana and Picea abies. Scand J For Res. 1: 435–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dale, P.J., J.A. Irwin and J.A. Scheffler. 1993. The experimental and commerical release of transgenic crop plants. Plant Breed. 111: 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dandekar, A.M., P.K. Gupta, D.J. Durzan and V. Knauf. 1987. Transformation and foreign gene expression in micropropagated Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii). Biol Technology. 5: 587–590.Google Scholar
  31. Day, J.G. and M.R. McLellan (eds.). 1995. Cryopreservation and Freeze-drying Protocols. pp. 1–254. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.Google Scholar
  32. De Cleene, M.and J. De Ley. 1976. The host range of crown gall. Bot Rev. 42: 389–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. De La Fuente-Martinez, G., A. Mosqueda-Cano, L. Alvarez-Morales and L. Herrera-Estrella. 1992. Expression of a bacterial phaseolotoxin-resistant ornithyl transcarbamylase in transgenic tobacco confers resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola. Bio/Technology. 10: 905–909.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Delmer, D.P. 1998. A hot mutant for cellulose synthesis. Trends Plant Sci. 3: 165–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Deroles, S.C. and R.C. Gardner. 1988. Analysis of the T-DNA structure in a large number of transgenic petunias generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Plant Mol Biol. 11: 365–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Doorsselaere, J.V., M. Baucher, E. Chognot, B. Chabbert, M.-T. Tollier, M. peti-Conil, J.-C. Leple, G. Pilate, D. Cornu and B. Monties. 1995. A novel lignin in popular trees with a reduced caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid O-methyltransferase activity. Plant J. 8: 855–864.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Douglas, C.J. 1996. Phenylpropanoid metabolism and lignin biosynthesis: From weeds to trees. Trends Plant Sci. 1: 171–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Drake, P.M.W., A. John, J.B. Power and M.R. Davey. 1997. Expression of the gus A gene in embryogenic celllines of Sitka spruce following Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. J Exp Bot. 48: 151–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Duchesne, L.C. and P.J. Charest. 1991. Transient expression of the β-glucuronidase gene in embryogenic callus of Picea mariana following microprojection. Plant Cell Rep. 10: 191–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Duchesne, L.C. and P.J. Charest. 1992. Effect of promoter sequence on transient expression of the β-glucuronidase gene in embryogenic calli of Larix × eurolepis and Picea mariana following microprojection. Can J Bot. 70: 175–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Duchesne, L.C., M.-A. Lelu, P. von Aderkas and P.J. Charest. 1993. Microprojectile-mediated DNA delivery in haploid and diploid embryogenic cells of Larix spp. Can J For Res. 23: 312–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Düring, K., P. Porsch, M. Fladung and H. Lörz. 1993. Transgenic potato plants resistant to the phytopathogenic bacterium Erwinia carotovera. Plant J. 3: 587–598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ellis, D.D. 1995. Transformation of gymnosperms. In: Somatic Embryogenesis in Woody Plants, Vol. 1. pp. 227–251. (eds S.M. Jain, P.K. Gupta and R.J. Newton) Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  44. Ellis, D.D., D.E. McCabe, S. McInnis, R. Ramachandran, D.R. Russell, K.M. Wallace, B.J. Martinell, D.R. Roberts, K.F. Raffa and B.H. McCown. 1993. Stable transformation of Picea glauca by particle acceleration. Bio/Technol. 11: 84–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ellis, D.D., D. McCabe, D. Russell, B. Martinell and B.H. McCown. 1991. Expression of inducible angiosperm promoters in a gymnosperm, Picea glauca (white spruce). Plant Mol Biol. 17: 19–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Ellis, D., D. Roberts, B. Sutton, W. Lazaroff, D. Webb and B. Flinn. 1989. Transformation of white spruce and other conifer species by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Plant Cell Rep. 8: 16–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Flavell, R.B. 1994. Inactivation of gene expression in plants as a consequence of specific sequence duplication. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 91: 3490–3496.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Gartland, K.M.A. and M.R. Davey. 1995. Agrobacterium Protocols. pp. 1–417. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Graham, L.A., Y.-C. Liou, V.K. Walker and P.L. Davies. 1997. Hyperactive antifreeze protein from beetles. Nature. 388: 727–728.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Gupta, P.K., A.M. Dandekar and D.J. Durzan. 1988. Somatic proembryo formation and transient expression of a luciferase gene in Douglas fir and loblolly pine protoplasts. Plant Sci. 58: 85–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Häggman, H.J. and T.S. Aronen. 1996. Agrobacterium mediated diseases and genetic transformation in forest trees. In: Forest Trees and Palms: Diseases and Control. pp. 135–179. (eds. Raychaudhuri and K. Maramorosch). New Delhi: Oxford and IBH Publ.Google Scholar
  52. Häggman, H., T.S. Aronen and T.O. Nikkanen. 1997. Gene transfer by particle bombardment to Norway spruce and Scots pine pollen. Can J For Res. 27: 928–935.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hain, R. H.-J. Reif, E. Krause, R. Langebartels, H. Kindl, B. Vornam, W. Wiese, E. Schmeizer, PH. Schreier, R.H. Stocker and K. Stenzel. 1993. Disease resistance results from foreign phytoalexin expression in a novel plant. Nature. 361: 153–156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hamilton, C.M., A. Frary, C. Lewis and S.D. Tanksley. 1996. Stable transfer of intact high molecular weight DNA into plant chromosomes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 93: 9975–9979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Han, K.H., P. Fleming, K. Walker, M. Loper, W.S. Chilton, U. Mocek, M.P. Gordon and H.G. Floss. 1994. Genetic transformation of mature Taxus: An approach to genetically control the in vitro production of the anitcancer drug, taxol. Plant Sci. 95: 187–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Han, K.-H., M.P. Gordon and S.H. Strauss. 1996. Cellular and molecular biology of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of plants and its application to genetic transformation of Populus. In: Biology of Populus and its Implications for Management and Conservation, Part I. (eds. R.F. Stettler, H.D. Bradshaw, Jr., P.E. Hedman and T.H. Hinckley). Ottawa: NRC Research Press.Google Scholar
  57. Hay, I., D. Lachance, P. von Aderkas and P.J. Charest. 1994. Transient chimeric gene expression in pollen of five conifer species following microparticle bombardment. Can J For Res. 24: 2417–2423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Herrera-Estrella and J. Simpson. 1995. Genetically engineered resistance to bacterial and fungal pathogens. World J Micro Biotechnol. 11: 383–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hightower, R., C. Baden, E. Penzes, P. Lund and P. Dunsmuir. 1991. Expression of antifreeze proteins in transgenic plants. Plant Mol Biol. 17: 1013–1021.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Huang, Y, A.M. Diner and D.F. Karnosky. 1991. Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mtdiated genetic transformation and regeneration of a conifer: Larix decidua. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol. 27: 201–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Ingram, J. and D. Bartels. 1996. The molecular basis of dehydration tolerance in plants. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol. 47: 377–403.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Ishitani, M, T. Nakamura, S.Y. Han and T. Takebe. 1995. Expression of the betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase gene in response to osmotic stress and abscisic acid. Plant Mol Biol. 27: 307–315.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Jain, S.M., P.K. Gupta and R.J. Newton (eds.). 1995a. Somatic Embryogenesis in Woody Plants. Vol. 1. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  64. Jain, S.M., RK. Gupta and RJ. Newton (eds.). 1995b. Somatic Embryogenesis in Woody Plants. Vol. 2. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  65. Jain, S.M., RK. Gupta and R.J. Newton (eds.). 1995c. Somatic Embryogenesis in Woody Plants. Vol. 3. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  66. Jia, Z., N. McCullough, R. Martel, S. Hemmingsen and P. Young. 1992. Gene amplifications at a locus encoding a putative Na+/H+ antiporter confers sodium and lithium tolerance in fission yeast. EMBO J. 11: 1631–1640.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Jones, H. (ed.). 1995. Plant Gene Transfer and Expression Protocols. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.Google Scholar
  68. Jorgensen, R.A., P.D. Cluster, J. English, Q. Que and C.A. Napoli. 1996. Chalcone synthase cosuppression phenotypes in petunia flowers: comparison of sense vs. antisense constructs and single vs. complex T-DNA sequences. Plant Mol Biol. 31: 957–973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Kahl, G. and P. Winter. 1995. Plant genetic engineering for crop improvement. World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 11: 449–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Kajita, S., S. Hishiyama, Y Tomimura, Y Katayama and S. Omori. 1997. Structural characterization of modified lignin in transgenic tobacco plants in which the activity of 4-coumarate: coenzymeA ligase is depressed. Plant Physiol. 114: 871–879.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Kaldenhoff, R., A. Kolling, J. Meyers, U. Karmann, G. Ruppel and G. Richter. 1995. The blue light response AthH2 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana is primarily expressed in expanding as well as differentiating cells and encodes a putative channel protein of plasmalemma. Plant J. 7: 87–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Kavanagh, T.A. and C. Spillane. 1995. Strategies for engineering virus resistance in transgenic plants. Euphytica. 85: 149–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Kavi Kishor, P.B., Z. Hong, G.-H. Miao, C.-A.A. Hu and D.P.S. Verma. 1995. Overexpression of 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase increases proline production and confers osmotolerance in transgenic plants. Plant Physiol. 108: 1387–1394.Google Scholar
  74. Kempin, S.A., S.J. Liljegren, L.M. Block, S.D. Rounsley, E. Lam and M.F. Yanofsky. 1997. Targeted disruption in Arabidopsis. Nature. 389: 802–803.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Koziel, M.G., G.L. Beland, C. Bowman, N.B. Carozzi, R. Crenshaw, L. Crossland, J. Dawson, N. Desai, M. Hill, S. Kadwell, K. Launis, K. Lewis, D. Maddox, K. McPherson, M.R. Meghji, E. Merlin, R. Rhodes, G.W. Warren, M. Wright and S.V. Evola. 1993. Field performance of elite transgenic maize plants expressing an insecticidal protein derived from Bacillus thuringiensis. Bio/Technology. 11: 194–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Koziel, M.G., N.B. Carozzi and N. Desai. 1996. Optimizing expression of transgenes with an emphasis on post-transcriptional events. Plant Mol Biol. 32: 393–405.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Kudlicka, K. and R.M. Brown, Jr. 1997. Cellulose and callose biosynthesis in plants. I. Solubilization and separation of (l→3)-and (1→4) β-glucan synthase activities from mung bean. Plant Physiol. 115: 643–656PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Lazzeri, P.A. and P.R. Shewry, 1994. Biotechnology of cereals. In: Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews. pp. 79–145. (ed. M.P. Tombs). Andover, MD: Intercept Ltd.Google Scholar
  79. Lee, D. and C.J. Douglas. 1997. Manipulation of plant gene expression using antisense RNA. In: Methods in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. pp. 423–439. (ed. W.J. Dashek). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  80. Levée, V, M.-A. Lelu, L. Jouanin, D. Cornu and G. Pilate. 1997. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of hybrid larch (Larix kaempferi × L. decidua) and transgenic plant regeneration. Plant Cell Rep. 16: 680–685.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Lilius, G., N. Holmberg and L. Bulow. 1996. Enhanced NaCl stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco expressing bacterial choline dehydrogenase. Bio/Technology. 14: 177–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Lough, T., C. Tourneur, J. Masson and C. Robaglia. 1997. Expression of genes in transgenic plants from bicistronic transcriptional units. Plant Sci. 129: 91–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Lurquin, P.F. 1997. Gene transfer by electroporation. Mol Biotechnol. 7: 5–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. MacKay, J.J., D.M. O’Malley, T. Presenell, F.L. Booker, M.M. Campbell, R.W. Whetten and R.R. Sederoff. 1997. Inheritance, gene expression, and lignin characterization in a mutant pine deficient in Coonamble alcohol dehydrogenase. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA. 94: 8255–8260.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Magnussen, D., D. Clapham, R. Gronroos and S. Von Arnold. 1994. Induction of hairy and normal roots on Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris and Pinus contorta by Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Scand J For Res. 9: 46–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Martini, N., M. Egen, I. Runtz and G. Strittmatter. 1993. Promoter sequences of a potato pathogenesis-related gene mediate transcriptional activation selectively upon fungal infection. Mol Gen Genet. 236: 179–186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Martinussen, I., O. Junttila and D. Twell. 1994. Optimization of transient gene expression in pollen of Norway spruce (Picea abies) by particle acceleration. Physiol Plant. 92: 412–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Matzke, M.A. and A.J.M. Matzke. 1995. How and why do plants inactivate homologous transgenes? Plant Physiol. 107: 679–685.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. McGaughey, W.H. and M.E. Whalon. 1992. Managing insect resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxins. Science. 258: 1451–1455.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Merlon, R. and P.J.J. Hooykaas. 1995. Gene replacement. Mol Breed. 1: 123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Miao, A.-H. and E. Lam. 1995. Targeted disruption of the TGA3 locus in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant J. 7: 359–365.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Mihalijevic, S., S. Stipkovic and S. Jelaska. 1996. Increase of root induction in Pinus nigra expiants using agrobacteria. Plant Cell Rep. 15: 610–614.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Moffat, A.S. 1998. Toting up the early harvest of transgenic plants. Science 282: 2176–2178.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Morris, J.W., L.A. Castle and R.O. Morris. 1989. Efficacy of different Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains in transformation of pinaceous gymnosperms. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol. 34: 451–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Murata, N., O. Ishizaki-Nishizawa, S. Higashi, H. Hayashi, Y. Tasaka and I. Nishida. 1992. Genetically engineered alteration in the chilling sensitivity of plants. Nature. 356: 710–713.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Mushegian, A.R. and R.J. Shepherd. 1995. Genetic elements of plant viruses as tools for genetic engineering. Microbiol Rev. 59: 548–578.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Neuhaus, J., P. Ahl-Goy, U. Hinz, S. Flores and F. Meins. 1991. High-level expression of a tobacco chitinase gene in Nicotiana sylvestris. Susceptibility of transgenic plants to Cercospora nicotianae infection. Plant Mol Biol. 16: 141–151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Nickoloff, J.A. 1995. Plant Cell Electroporation and Electrofusion Protocols. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Ober, E.S. and R.E. Sharp. 1994. Proline accumulation in maize (Zea mays L.) primary roots at low water potentials. Plant Physiol. 105: 981–987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Palmer, K.E. and E.P. Rybicki. 1997. The use of geminiviruses in biotechnology and plant molecular biology, with particular focus on Mastreviruses. Plant Sci. 129: 115–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Pappu, H.R., C.L. Niblett and R.F. Lee. 1995. Application of recombinant DNA technology to plant protection: Molecular approaches to engineering virus resistance in crop plants. World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 11: 426–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Pilon-Smits, E.A.H., M.J.M. Ebskamp, M.J.W. Jeuken, P.J. Weisbeek and S.C.M. Smeekens. 1995. Improved performance of transgenic fructan-accumulating tobacco under drought stress. Plant Physiol. 107: 125–130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Powell-Abel, P., R.S. Nelson, B. De, N. Hoffman, S.G. Rogers, R.T. Fraley and R.N. Beachy]. 1986. Delay of disease development in transgenic plants that express the tobacco mosaic virus coat protein gene. Science. 232: 738–743CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Raffa, K.F. 1989. Genetic engineering of trees to enhance resistance to insects: Evaluating the risks of biotype evaluation and secondary pest outbreak. BioScience. 39: 524–534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Rey, M., M.V. Gonzalez, R.J. Ordas, R. Tavazza and G. Ancora. 1996. Factors affecting transient gene expression in cultured radiata pine cotyledons following particle bombardment. Physiol Plant. 96: 630–536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Rhodes, D. and A.D. Hanson. 1993. Quaternary ammonium and tertiary sulfonium compounds in higher plants. Anna Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol. 44: 357–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Robertson, D., A.K. Weissinger, R. Ackley, S. Glover and R.R. Sederoff. 1992. Genetic transformation of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) using somatic embryo expiants by microprojectile bombardment. Plant Mol Biol. 19: 925–935.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Robson, P.R.H., A.C. McCormac, A.S. Irvine and H. Smith]. 1996. Genetic engineering of harvest index in tobacco through overexpression of a phytochrome gene. Nature Biotechnol. 14: 995–998CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Romero, C., J.M. Belles, J.L. Vaya, R. Serrano and F.A. Culianez-Macia. 1997. Expression of the yeast trehalose-6-phosphate synthase gene in transgenic tobacco plants: Pleiotropic phenotypes include drought tolerance. Planta. 201: 293–297.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Sederoff, R., M. Campbell, D. O’Malley and R. Whetten. 1994. Genetic regulation of lignin biosynthesis and the potential modification of wood by genetic engineering in loblolly pine. In: Genetic Engineering of Plant Secondary Metabolism. pp. 313–355. (eds. B.E. Ellis et al.) New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Shillito, R.D. and I. Potrykus. 1987. Direct gene transfer to protoplasts of dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants by a number of methods, including electroporation. Methods Enzymol. 153: 313–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Shin, D.-I., G.K. Podila, Y. Huang and D.F. Karnosky. 1994. Transgenic larch expressing genes for herbicide and insect resistance. Can J For Res. 24: 2059–2067.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Stomp, A.-M., A. Weissinger and R.R. Sederoff. 1991. Transient expression from microprojectile-mediated DNA transfer in Pinus taeda. Plant Cell Rep. 10: 187–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Strauss, S.H., WH. Rottmann, A.M. Brunner and L.A. Sheppard. 1994. Genetic engineering of sterility in forest trees. Mol Breed 1: 5–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Strittmatter, G. and D. Wegener. 1993. Genetic engineering of disease and pest resistance in plants: Present state of the art. Z Naturforsch. 48C: 673–688.Google Scholar
  116. Tarczynski, M.C., R.G. Jensen and H. Bohnert. 1993. Stress protection of transgenic tobacco by production of the osmolyte mannitol. Science. 259: 508–510.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Tautorus, T.E., F. Bekkaoui, M. Pilon, R.S.S. Datla, W.L. Crosby, L.C. Fowke and D.I. Dunstan. 1989. Factors affecting transient gene expression in electroporated black spruce (Picea mariana) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana) protoplasts. Theor Appl Genet. 78: 531–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Thomas, J.C., M. Sepahi, B. Arendall and H.J. Bohnert]. 1995. Enhancement of seed germination in high salinity by engineering mannitol expression in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell Environ. 18: 801–806CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Tinland, B. 1996. The integration of T-DNA into plant genomes. Trends Plant Sci. 1: 178–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Trudel, J., C. Potvin and A. Asselin. 1992. Expression of active hen egg white lysozyzme in transgenic tobacco. Plant Sci. 87: 55–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Wallis, J.G., H. Wang and DJ. Guerra. 1997. Expression of a synthetic antifreeze protein in potato reduces electrolyte release at freezing temperatures. Plant Mol Biol. 35: 323–330.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Walter, C., D.R. Smith, M.B. Connett, L. Grace and D.W.R. White. 1994. A biolistic approach for the transfer and expression of a gusA reporter gene in embryogenic cultures of Pinus radiata. Plant Cell Rep. 14: 69–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Weising, K. and G. Kahl. 1996. Natural genetic engineering of plant cells. The molecular biology of crown gall and hairy root disease. World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 12: 327–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Whetton, R. and R. Sederoff. 1995. Lignin biosynthesis. Plant Cell. 7: 1001–1013.Google Scholar
  125. Wilson, S.M., T.A. Thorpe and M.M. Moloney. 1989. PEG-mediated expression of GUS and CAT genes expression in protoplasts from embryogenic suspension cultures of Picea glauca. Plant Cell Rep. 7: 704–707.Google Scholar
  126. Wu, H., C.S. Echt, M.P. Popp and J.M. Davis. 1997. Molecular cloning, structure and expression of an elicitor-inducible chitinase gene from pine trees. Plant Mol Biol. 33: 979–987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Yao, K., V. De Luca and N. Brisson. 1995. Creation of a metabolic sink for tryptophan alters the phenylpropanoid pathway and susceptibility of potato to Phytophthora infestons. Plant Cell. 7: 1787–1799.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Ye, B., H.H. Müller, J. Zhang and J. Gressel. 1997. Constitutively elevated levels of putrescine and putrescine-generating enzymes correlated with oxidant stress resistance in Conyza bonariensis and wheat. Plant Physiol. 115: 1443–1451.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Ye, Z.H. et al. 1994. An alternative methylation pathway in lignin biosynthesis in Zinnia. Plant Cell. 6: 1427–1439.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Yibrah, H.S., G. Manders, D.H. Clapham and S. Von Arnold. 1994. Biological factors affecting transient transformation in embryogenic suspension cultures of Picea abies. J Plant Physiol. 144: 472–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Zambryski, P. 1992. Chronicles from the Agrobacterium-plant cell DNA transfer story. Anna Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol. 43: 465–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. C. Minocha
    • 1
  • R. Minocha
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Plant BiologyUniversity of New HampshireDurhamUSA
  2. 2.USDA Forest Service, NERSDurhamUSA

Personalised recommendations