Environmental Forestry Conflicts in Europe and the United States

  • Eeva Hellström
Part of the World Forests book series (WFSE, volume 1)


In the 1960’s and 1970’s, criticism of forestry arose mainly from perceptions of it at the national level. In many Western countries, forest conflicts of this era originated from a clash of three simultaneous developments related to economic growth. First, the striving for economic growth led to intensified forest management. Secondly, economic growth raised the standard of living which increased recreational pressure upon forests. Thirdly, economic growth led to the deterioration of the environment and fear for the exhaustion of natural resources (Hellström and Reunala 1995).


Forest Resource Forest Owner Conflict Management Forest Policy Community Forestry 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Chandrasekharan, D. (ed.) 1997. Proceedings of the Electronic Conference on “Addressing Natural Resource Conflicts through Community Forestry” held in January-May 1996. FAO Forestry Department. Forests, Trees and People Programme, Community Forestry Unit. FAO, Rome.Google Scholar
  2. Coser, L.A. 1956. The Functions of Social Conflict. The Free Press, New York.Google Scholar
  3. GEIS 1994. Report of the GEIS Implementation Strategy Roundtable. Submitted to the Commissioner, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources.Google Scholar
  4. Hellström, E. 1994. Backgrounds of Illegal Forest Degradation in Finland. Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Scandinavian Society of Forest Economics, Gilleleje, Denmark, November 1993. Scandinavian Forest Economics 35: 368–378.Google Scholar
  5. Hellström, E. 1997. Environmental Forest Conflicts from an International Comparative Point of View. In: B. Solberg and S. Miina (eds.), Conflict Management and Public Participation in Land Management. EFI Proceedings 14. European Forest Institute, Joensuu Pp. 271–287.Google Scholar
  6. Hellström, E. and Reunala, A. 1995. Forest conflicts from the 1950’s to 1983-A Review of a Comparative Study between USA, Germany, France, Sweden, Finland and Norway. EFI Research Report 3. European Forest Institute, JoensuuGoogle Scholar
  7. Hellström, E. and Welp, M. 1996. Environmental Forest Conflicts in Germany-from National to International Concern. EFI Working Paper 11. European Forest Institute, JoensuuGoogle Scholar
  8. Keltner, J. 1990. From mild disagreement to war: The struggle spectrum. In: J. Stewart (ed.), Bridges, not walls. McGraw-Hill, New York. Pp. 319–332.Google Scholar
  9. Kilgore, M.A., Ellefson, P.V. and Rose, G.A. 1996. Innovative Forestry Initiatives. Minnesota Prepares for the Future. Journal of Forestry 94(1): 21–25.Google Scholar
  10. Solberg, B. and Miina, S. (eds.) 1997. Conflict Management and Public Participation in Land Management. EFI Proceedings 14. European Forest Institute.Google Scholar
  11. Stewart, J. (ed.) 1990. Bridges, not walls. McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  12. Suhonen, P. 1994. Médiat, me ja ympäristö. Kust. Oy Hanki ja Jää, Helsinki.Google Scholar
  13. Tjosvold, D. 1984. Making conflicts productive. Personnel Administrator, June 1984. Pp. 53, 121-130.Google Scholar
  14. Wondolleck, J.M. 1988. Public Lands Conflict and Resolution. Managing National Forest Disputes. Plenum Press, New York and London.Google Scholar
  15. Yaffee, S.L. 1994. The Wisdom of the Spotted Owl. Policy Lessons for a New Century. Island Press, Washington D.C./Covelo, California.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eeva Hellström

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations