Topological Effects for a Free Electromagnetic Field

  • G. N. Afanasiev
Part of the Fundamental Theories of Physics book series (FTPH, volume 107)


The difficulties associated with the probability density of photons were recognised by Landau and Peierls as early as 1930 [36]. However, the density obtained by them was not positive-definite, and thus had no physical meaning. Later Zeldovich [37] obtained the following bilinear representation for a number of photons:


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. N. Afanasiev
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Theoretical PhysicsJoint Institute for Nuclear ResearchDubna, MoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations